Connections Between Various Trigger Factors and the RIP1/RIP3 Signaling Pathway Involved in Necroptosis

  • Zhang, Yuan-Yuan ;
  • Liu, Hao
  • Published : 2013.12.31


Programmed cell death is a basic cellular process that is critical to maintaining tissue homeostasis. In contrast to apoptosis, necrosis was previously regarded as an unregulated and uncontrollable process. However, as research has progressed, necrosis, also known as necroptosis or programmed necrosis, is drawing increasing attention, not least becasu of its possible impications for cancer research. Necroptosis exhibits a unique signaling pathway that requires the involvement of receptor interaction protein kinases 1 and 3 (RIP1 and RIP3), mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), and phosphoglycerate mutase 5 (PGAM5) and can be specifically inhibited by necrostatins. Not only does necroptosis serve as a backup cell death program when apoptosis is inhibited, but it is now recognized to play a pivotal role in regulating various physiological processes and the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases such as ischemic brain injury, immune system disorders and cancer. The control of necroptosis by various defined trigger factors and signaling pathways now offers the opportunity to target this cellular process for therapeutic purposes. The purpose of this paper is to review current findings concerning the connections between various trigger factors and the RIP1/RIP3 signaling pathway as it relates to necroptosis.


Necroptosis;TNFR;Fas;TRAILR;RIP1-RIP3 necrosome;MLKL complex


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