Beliefs and Behaviors of Breast Cancer Screening in Women Referring to Health Care Centers in Northwest Iran According to the Champion Health Belief Model Scale

  • Fouladi, Nasrin (Department of Community Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Pourfarzi, Farhad (Department of Community Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mazaheri, Effat (Faculty of Nursing, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Asl, Hossein Alimohammadi (Department of Basic Science, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Rezaie, Minoo (Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Amani, Fiouz (Department of Community Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Nejad, Masumeh Rostam (Faculty of Nursing, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2013.11.30


Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. All ages are susceptible and more than 90% of the patients can be cured with early diagnosis. Breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography can be useful for this aim. In this study we examined the components of the Champion health belief model to identify if they could predict the intentions of women to perform such screening. Materials and Methods: A total of 380 women aged 30 and above who had referred to health-care centers were assessed for use of breast cancer screening over the past year with a modified health belief model questionnaire. Logistic regression was applied to identify leading independent predictors. Results: In this study 27% of the women performed BSE in the last year but only 6.8% of them used mammography as a way of screening. There were significant differences regarding all components of the model except for perceived severity between women that underwent BSE. over the past year and those that did not. Findings were similar for mammography. Regression analysis revealed that intentions to perform BSE were predicted by perceived self-efficacy and perceived barriers to BSE while intentions to perform mammography were predicted by perceived barriers. Conclusions: This study indicated that self-efficacy can support performance of BSE while perceived barriers are important for not performing both BSE and mammography. Thus we must educate women to increase their self-efficacy and decrease their perceived barriers.


Breast cancer;screening;Champion health belief model;Northwest Iran


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