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Smoking Cessation Intervention in Rural Kerala, India: Findings of a Randomised Controlled Trial

  • Jayakrishnan, Radhakrishnan (School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere) ;
  • Uutela, Antti (National Institute For Health and Welfare) ;
  • Mathew, Aleyamma (Regional Cancer Centre) ;
  • Auvinen, Anssi (School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere) ;
  • Mathew, Preethi Sara (Regional Cancer Centre) ;
  • Sebastian, Paul (Regional Cancer Centre)
  • Published : 2013.11.30

Abstract

Background: Prevalence of tobacco use is higher in the rural than urban areas of India. Unlike tobacco cessation clinics located in urban areas, community-based smoking cessation intervention has the potential to reach a wider section of the community to assist in smoking cessation in the rural setting. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a cessation intervention in rural Kerala state, India. Materials and Methods: Current daily smoking resident males in the age group 18-60 years from four community development blocks in rural Kerala were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. The intervention group received multiple approaches in which priority was given to face-to-face interviews and telephone counselling. Initially educational materials on tobacco hazards were distributed. Further, four rounds of counselling sessions were conducted which included a group counselling with a medical camp as well as individual counselling by trained medical social workers. The control group received general awareness training on tobacco hazards along with an anti-tobacco leaflet. Self-reported smoking status was assessed after 6 and 12 months. Factors associated with tobacco cessation were estimated using binomial regression method. Results: Overall prevalence of smoking abstinence was 14.7% in the intervention and 6.8% in the control group (Relative risk: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.25). A total of 41.3% subjects in the intervention area and 13.6% in the control area had reduced smoking by 50% or more at the end of 12 months. Lower number of cigarettes/ bidi used, low nicotine dependence and consultation with a doctor for a medical ailment were the statistically significant predictors for smoking cessation. Conclusions: Rigorous approaches for smoking cessation programmes can enhance quit rates in smoking in rural areas of India.

Keywords

Community approach;intervention;smoking cessation;rural Kerala;India

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