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Treatment Outcome with Brachytherapy for Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

  • Cheah, Soon Keat (Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Kuala Lumpur General Hospital) ;
  • Lau, Fen Nee (Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Kuala Lumpur General Hospital) ;
  • Yusof, Mastura Md (Clinical Oncology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya) ;
  • Phua, Vincent Chee Ee (Clinical Oncology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya)
  • Published : 2013.11.30

Abstract

Background: To evaluate the treatment outcome and major late complications of all patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All patients with histologically confirmed recurrent NPC in the absence of distant metastasis treated in the period 1997-2010 were included in this study. These patients were treated with ICBT alone or in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Treatment outcomes measured were local recurrence free survival (LRFS), disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Thirty three patients were eligible for this study. The median age at recurrence was 56 years with a median time to initial local recurrence of 27 months. Majority of patients were staged as rT1-2 (94%) or rN0 (82%). The proportion of patients categorised as stage III-IV at first local recurrence was only 9%. Twenty one patients received a combination of ICBT and external beam radiotherapy while 12 patients were treated with ICBT alone. Median interval of recurrence post re-irradiation was 32 months (range: 4-110 months). The median LRFS, DFS and OS were 30 months, 29 months and 36 months respectively. The 5 year LRFS, DFS and OS were 44.7%, 38.8% and 28.1% respectively. The N stage at recurrence was found to be a significant prognostic factor for LRFS and DFS after multivariate analysis. Major late complications occurred in 34.9% of our patients. Conclusions: Our study shows ICBT was associated with a reasonable long term outcome in salvaging recurrent NPC although major complications remained a significant problem. The N stage at recurrence was a significant prognostic factor for both LRFS and DFS.

Keywords

Nasopharyngeal cancer;recurrence;brachytherapy;outcome;Malaysia

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