Characteristics of 240 Chinese Father-child Pairs with Malignant Disease

  • Liu, Ju ;
  • Li, Ni ;
  • Chang, Sheng ;
  • Xu, Zhi-Jian ;
  • Zhang, Kai
  • Published : 2013.11.30


To obtain a screening and early detection reference for individuals who have a family history of cancer on the paternal side, we collected and analyzed data from 240 pairs in which both fathers and their children were diagnosed with cancer. Disease categories of fathers and sons were similar to that of the general population of China, whereas daughters were different from general female population with high incidence of breast cancer and gynecological cancer. Sons were more likely than daughters to have the same type of cancer, or to have cancer in the same organ system as their fathers (P < 0.0001). Sons and daughters developed malignant diseases 11 and 16 years earlier than their fathers, respectively (P < 0.0001 for both sons and daughters). Daughters developed malignant diseases 5 years earlier than sons (P < 0.0001). Men with a family history of malignant tumors on the paternal side should be screened for malignancies from the age of 45 years, or 11 years earlier than the age of their fathers' diagnosis, and women should be screened from the age of 40 years, or 16 years earlier than the age at which their fathers were diagnosed with cancer. Lung cancer should be investigated in both men and women, whilst screening should focus on cancer of the digestive system in men and on breast and gynecological cancer (ovary, uterine and cervical cancer) in women.


Cancer;family history;father;son;daughter;screening;early detection


  1. Breslow N, Olson J, Moksness J, Beckwith JB, Grundy P (1996). Familial Wilms’ tumor: a descriptive study. Med Pediatr Oncol, 27, 398-403.<398::AID-MPO2>3.0.CO;2-H
  2. Bratt O, Kristoffersson U, Lundgren R, Olsson H (1997). Sons of men with prostate cancer: their attitudes regarding possible inheritance of prostate cancer, screening, and genetic testing. Urology, 50, 360-5.
  3. Berretta M, Lleshi A, Fisichella R, et al (2012). The role of nutrition in the development of esophageal cancer: what do we know? Front Biosci (Elite Ed), 4, 351-7.
  4. Conteduca V, Sansonno D, Lauletta G, et al (1996). H. pylori infection and gastric cancer: State of the art (Review). Int J Oncol, 42, 5-18.
  5. Chen WQ, Zeng HM, Zhang SW, He J (2012). Cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2007. Chin J Cancer Research, 24, 1-8.
  6. Ellberg C, Olsson H (2011). Breast cancer patients with lobular cancer more commonly have a father than a mother diagnosed with cancer. BMC Cancer, 11, 497-503.
  7. Fallot RD, Mahl GF (1976). Imitation in the family: a study of older parents and their adult sons. Int J Aging Hum Dev, 7, 1-14.
  8. Friedman DL, Kadan-Lottick NS, Whitton J, et al (2005). Increased risk of cancer among siblings of long-term childhood cancer survivors: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 14, 1922-7.
  9. Goldstein AM, Fraser MC, Clark WH, Tucker MA (1994). Age at Diagnosis and Transmission of Invasive Melanoma in 23 Families With Cutaneous Malignat Melanoma/Dysplastic Nevi. J Natl Cancer Inst, 86, 1385-90.
  10. Garmien. A, .emaitien. N, Zaborskis A (2006). Family time, parental behaviour model and the initiation of smoking and alcohol use by ten-year-old children: an epidemiological study in Kaunas, Lithuania. BMC Public Health, 6, 287-295.
  11. Johns LE, Houlston RS (2001). A systematic review and meta-analysis of familial colorectal cancer risk. Am J Gastroenterol, 96, 2992-3003.
  12. M, Vangronsveld J, Nawrot TS (2011). An epidemiological reappraisal of the familial aggregation of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. PLoS One, 6, e27130, 1-7.
  13. Li L, Ying X-J, Sun T-T, et al (2012). Overview of methodological quality of systematic reviews about gastric cancer risk and protective factors. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 2069-79.
  14. Mucha L, Stephenson J, Morandi N, Dirani R (2006). Meta-analysis of disease risk associated with smoking, by gender and intensity of smoking. Gend Med, 3, 279-91.
  15. Oze I, Matsuo K, Wakai K, et al (2011). Alcohol drinking and esophageal cancer risk: an evaluation based on a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence among the Japanese population. Jpn J Clin Oncol, 41, 677-92.
  16. Oze I, Matsuo K, Wakai K, et al (2012). Research Group for the Development and Evaluation of Cancer Prevention Strategies in Japan.Cigarette smoking and esophageal cancer risk: an evaluation based on a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence among the Japanese population. Jpn J Clin Oncol, 42, 63-73.
  17. Ramsey SD, Yoon P, Moonesinghe R, Khoury MJ (2006). Population-based study of the prevalence of family history of cancer: implications for cancer screening and prevention. Genet Med, 8, 571-5.
  18. Tao P, Hu YY, Huang Y, Li JY (2011). Risk factors of breast cancer in Asian women: a Meta-analysis. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi= Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi, 32, 164-9.
  19. Vargas AJ, Thompson PA (2012). Diet and nutrient factors in colorectal cancer risk. Nutr Clin Pract, 27, 613-23.
  20. Yuen MF, Hou JL, Chutaputti A (2009). Hepatocellular carcinoma in the Asia pacific region. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 24, 346-53.
  21. Zhou W-B, Xue D-Q, Liu X-A, Ding Q, Wang S (2011). The influence of family history and histological stratification on breast cancer risk in women with benign breast disease: a meta-analysis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 137, 1053-60.

Cited by

  1. Randomized Control Study of Nedaplatin or Cisplatin Concomitant with Other Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer vol.15, pp.2, 2014,
  2. Risk of Malignancy Associated with a Maternal Family History of Cancer vol.15, pp.5, 2014,
  3. Genetic Polymorphisms of TCF7L2 Lack Influence on Risk of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - a Systemic Analysis vol.15, pp.7, 2014,