Factors Associated with Underscreening for Cervical Cancer among Women in Canada

  • Schoueri-Mychasiw, Nour (School of Public Health and Health Systems, AHS, University of Waterloo) ;
  • McDonald, Paul Wesley (College of Health, Massey University Albany)
  • Published : 2013.11.30


Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Failure to prevent cervical cancer is partly due to non-participation in regular screening. It is important to plan and develop screening programs directed towards underscreened women. In order to identify the factors associated with underscreening for cervical cancer among women, this study examined Pap test participation and factors associated with not having a time-appropriate (within 3 years) Pap test among a representative sample of women in Ontario, Canada using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) data. Materials and Methods: Univariate analyses, cross-tabulations, and logistic regression modeling were conducted using cross-sectional data from the 2007-2008 CCHS. Analyses were restricted to 13,549 sexually active women aged 18-69 years old living in Ontario, with no history of hysterectomy. Results: Almost 17% of women reported they had not had a time-appropriate Pap test. Not having a time-appropriate Pap test was associated with being 40-69 years old, single, having low education and income, not having a regular doctor, being of Asian (Chinese, South Asian, other Asian) cultural background, less than excellent health, and being a recent immigrant. Conclusions: Results indicate that disparities still exist in terms of who is participating in cervical cancer screening. It is crucial to develop and implement cervical cancer screening programs that not only target the general population, but also those who are less likely to obtain a Pap tests.


Pap tests;cervical cancer screening;women's health;participation factors;Canada


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