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Stratifying Patients with Haematuria into High or Low Risk Groups for Bladder Cancer: a Novel Clinical Scoring System

  • Tan, Guan Hee (Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) ;
  • Shah, Shamsul Azhar (Department of Community Health, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) ;
  • Ann, Ho Sue (Department of Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) ;
  • Hemdan, Siti Nurhafizah (Department of Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) ;
  • Shen, Lim Chun (Department of Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) ;
  • Abdul Galib, Nurudin Al-Fahmi (Department of Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) ;
  • Singam, Praveen (Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) ;
  • Kong, Ho Chee Christopher (Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) ;
  • Hong, Goh Eng (Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) ;
  • Bahadzor, Badrulhisham (Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) ;
  • Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md (Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia)
  • Published : 2013.11.30

Abstract

Haematuria is a common presentation of bladder cancer and requires a full urologic evaluation. This study aimed to develop a scoring system capable of stratifying patients with haematuria into high or low risk groups for having bladder cancer to help clinicians decide which patients need more urgent assessment. This cross-sectional study included all adult patients referred for haematuria and subsequently undergoing full urological evaluation in the years 2001 to 2011. Risk factors with strong association with bladder cancer in the study population were used to design the scoring system. Accuracy was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 325 patients with haematuria were included, out of which 70 (21.5%) were diagnosed to have bladder cancer. Significant risk factors associated with bladder cancer were male gender, a history of cigarette smoking and the presence of gross haematuria. A scoring system using 4 clinical parameters as variables was created. The scores ranged between 6 to 14, and a score of 10 and above indicated high risk for having bladder cancer. It was found to have good accuracy with an area under the ROC curve of 80.4%, while the sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 55.7%, respectively. The scoring system designed in this study has the potential to help clinicians stratify patients who present with haematuria into high or low r isk for having bladder cancer. This will enable high-risk patients to undergo urologic assessment earlier.

Keywords

Haematuria;bladder cancer;scoring system;risk stratification;nomogram

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