Induction of Caspase-9, Biochemical Assessment and Morphological Changes Caused by Apoptosis in Cancer Cells Treated with Goniothalamin Extracted from Goniothalamus macrophyllus

  • Alabsi, Aied Mohammed (Dental Research and Training Unit) ;
  • Ali, Rola (Department of Biotechnology, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)) ;
  • Ali, Abdul Manaf (Department of Biotechnology, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)) ;
  • Harun, Hazlan (Department of Chemistry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)) ;
  • Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman (Community Medicine Department, International Medical University) ;
  • Ganasegeran, Kurubaran (International Medical School, Management and Science University (MSU)) ;
  • Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed (Newcastle University Medicine Malaysia) ;
  • Salem, Sameer Dirhim (Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya) ;
  • Kasim, Noor Hayaty Binti Abu (Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya)
  • Published : 2013.11.30


Goniothalamin, a natural compound extracted from Goniothalamus sp. belonging to the Annonacae family, possesses anticancer properties towards several tumor cell lines. This study focused on apoptosis induction by goniothalamin (GTN) in the Hela cervical cancer cell line. Cell growth inhibition was measured by MTT assay and the $IC_{50}$ value of goniothalamin was $3.2{\pm}0.72{\mu}g/ml$. Morphological changes and biochemical processes associated with apoptosis were evident on phase contrast microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. DNA fragmentation, DNA damage, caspase-9 activation and a large increase in the sub-G1 and S cell cycle phases confirmed the occurrence of apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. It could be concluded that goniothalamin show a promising cytotoxicity effect against cervical cancer cells (Hela) and the cell death mode induced by goniothalamin was apoptosis.


Goniothalamin;hela cervical cancer cell line;fluorescence microscopy;DNA fragmentation;DNA damage


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