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High Mobility Group Box 1 Protein Is Methylated and Transported to Cytoplasm in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

  • Wu, Fei (Department of Urology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University) ;
  • Zhao, Zuo-Hui (Department of Urology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University) ;
  • Ding, Sen-Tai (Department of Urology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University) ;
  • Wu, Hai-Hu (Department of Urology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University) ;
  • Lu, Jia-Ju (Department of Urology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University)
  • Published : 2013.10.30

Abstract

Background: The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a widespread nuclear protein present in most cell types. It typically locates in the nucleus and functions as a nuclear cofactor in transcription regulation. However, HMGB1 can also localize in the cytoplasm and be released into extracellular matrix, where it plays critical roles in carcinogenesis and inflammation. However, it remains elusive whether HMGB1 is relocated to cytoplasm in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods: Nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins were extracted by different protocols from 20 ccRCC samples and corresponding adjacent renal tissues. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to identify the expression of HMGB1 in ccRCC. To elucidate the potential mechanism of HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation, HMGB1 proteins were enriched by immunoprecipitation and analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). Results: The HMGB1 protein was overexpressed and partially localized in cytoplasm in ccRCC samples (12/20, 60%, p<0.05). Immunohistochemistry results indicated that ccRCC of high nuclear grade possess more HMGB1 relocation than those with low grade (p<0.05). Methylation of HMGB1 at lysine 112 in ccRCC was detected by MS. Bioinformatics analysis showed that post-translational modification might affect the binding ability to DNA and mediate its translocation. Conclusion: Relocation of HMGB1 to cytoplasm was confirmed in ccRCC. Methylation of HMGB1 at lysine 112 might the redistribution of this cofactor protein.

Keywords

HMGB1;methylation;RCC;renal cancer;transcription regulation;cytoplasmic location

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