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Genes and SNPs Associated with Non-hereditary and Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

  • Nassiri, Mohammadreza (Department of Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad) ;
  • Kooshyar, Mohammad Mahdi (Department of Hematology-Oncology, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Roudbar, Zahra (Department of Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad) ;
  • Mahdavi, Morteza (Department of Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad) ;
  • Doosti, Mohammad (Department of Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad)
  • Published : 2013.10.30

Abstract

Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in both men and women in the world and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The incidence of colorectal cancer has increased in Iran in the past three decades and is now considered as a serious problem for our society. This cancer has two types hereditary and non-hereditary, 80% of cases being the latter. Considering that the relationship between SNPs with diseases is a concern, many researchers believed that they offer valuable markers for identifying genes responsible for susceptibility to common diseases. In some cases, they are direct causes of human disease. One SNP can increase risk of cancer, but when considering the rate of overlap and frequency of DNA repair pathways, it might be expected that SNP alone cannot affect the final result of cancer, although several SNPs together can exert a significant influence. Therefore identification of these SNPs is very important. The most important loci which include mutations are: MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, APC, MUTYH, SMAD7, STK11, $XRCC_3$, $DNMT_1$, MTHFR, Exo1, $XRCC_1$ and VDR. Presence of SNPs in these genes decreases or increases risk of colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: In this article we reviewed the Genes and SNPs associated with non-hereditary and hereditary of colorectal cancer that recently were reported from candidate gene y, meta-analysis and GWAS studies. Results: As with other cancers, colorectal cancer is associated with SNPs in gene loci. Generally, by exploring SNPs, it is feasible to predict the risk of developing colorectal cancer and thus establishing proper preventive measures. Conclusions: SNPs of genes associated with colorectal cancer can be used as a marker SNP panel as a potential tool for improving cancer diagnosis and treatment planning.

Keywords

Colorectal cancer;hereditary genes;non-hereditary genes;SNPs

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