Detection of Human Papillomavirus in Male and Female Urine by Electrochemical DNA Chip and PCR Sequencing

  • Nilyanimit, Pornjarim (Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University) ;
  • Wanlapakorn, Nasamon (Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University) ;
  • Niruthisard, Somchai (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University) ;
  • Pohthipornthawat, Natkrita (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University) ;
  • Karalak, Anant (Department of Pathology, National Cancer Institute) ;
  • Laowahutanont, Piyawat (Department of Pathology, National Cancer Institute) ;
  • Phanuphak, Nittaya (The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre) ;
  • Gemma, Nobuhiro (Research and Development Center) ;
  • Poovorawan, Yong (Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University)
  • Published : 2013.09.30


Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in Thai women after breast cancer. Currently, the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is the recommended procedure for cervical cancer screening in Thailand, but only a relatively small percentage of women follow this screening program. An alternative method to detect HPV genotypes associated with cervical cancer is self-sampling of urine, which is a more widely accepted method. Our study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HPV in Thai women using urine and cervical swabs and prevalence of HPV in Thai men using urine samples. Materials and Methods: Tumorigenic HPV detection was accomplished by electrochemical DNA chip and PCR/direct sequencing. In addition to HPV prevalence, we report the concordance between different methods and sample types. One-hundred and sixteen women and 100 men were recruited. Histological examination revealed normal cytology in 52 women, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in 9, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 24, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in 31. One-hundred men were classified as heterosexuals (n=45) and homosexuals (n=55). Results: The most prevalent HPV genotype in our study was HPV16. The HPV detection rate was generally lower in urine samples compared with cervical samples. Overall, there was good agreement for the detection of carcinogenic HPV from female cervical samples between the DNA chip and PCR/sequencing, with 88.8% total agreement and a kappa value of 0.76. In male urine samples, the level of agreement was higher in heterosexuals compared with homosexuals. Conclusions: Further improvement is required to increase an overall yield of HPV DNA detection in urine samples before clinical application of a urine-based HPV screening program. The electrochemical DNA chip test is a promising technique for carcinogenic HPV detection.


HPV;HPV genotyping;cervical cancer;urine;electrochemical DNA chip


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