Can Reproductive Characteristics Predict Bladder Cancer in Women with Haematuria?

  • Yavuzcan, Ali (Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Duzce University Faculty of Medicine) ;
  • Caglar, Mete (Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Duzce University Faculty of Medicine) ;
  • Kayikci, Muhammet Ali (Department of Urology, Duzce University Faculty of Medicine) ;
  • Basaran, Ekrem (Department of Urology, Duzce University Faculty of Medicine) ;
  • Tekin, Ali (Department of Urology, Duzce University Faculty of Medicine) ;
  • Ozdemir, Enver (Department of Urology, Duzce University Faculty of Medicine) ;
  • Dilbaz, Serdar (Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Duzce University Faculty of Medicine) ;
  • Ustun, Yusuf (Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Duzce University Faculty of Medicine) ;
  • Cam, Haydar Kamil (Department of Urology, Duzce University Faculty of Medicine)
  • Published : 2013.09.30


Background: Among women with haematuria, defining individuals under high risk for bladder cancer based on reproductive factors prior to cystoscopy would be of great benefit in the management of this condition. The aim of this study was to compare age and reproductive factors such as menopausal status, parity, age at first delivery and age at the last delivery between women who have haematuria with or without bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 463 patients underwent diagnostic cystoscopy in D$\ddot{u}$zce University Faculty of Medicine between 1 June 2008 and 1 June 2013. Female patients who presented with persistent microscopic or macroscopic haematuria and underwent standard evaluation for haematuria including urinalysis, urine culture, urine cytology, urinary tract imaging with excretory urography or computerized tomography with contrast enhancement and endoscopic evaluation of the urethra and bladder were included in this study. Exclusion criteria were tobacco use and high risk occupations for bladder cancer such as textile, dry cleaning, painting and etc. Forteen women had hematuria due to benign conditions, and 18 due to bladder cancer. Data were retrospectively retrieved from the medical records of Duzce University Hospital. Results: Patients with haematuria due to benign reasons did not significantly differ from patients who were found to have bladder cancer in terms of age (p=0.28), menopausal status (p=0.29), mean parity (p=0.38), being nulliparous (p=0.57), parity ${\geq}3$ (p=0.22), age ${\leq}18$ years at first delivery (p=1.00), age ${\geq}30$ years at last delivery (p=0.26), age ${\geq}35$ years at last delivery (p=0.23) and percentage of the patients with advanced age (${\geq}65$ years) (p=0.18). Conclusions: It is difficult to predict a high risk for developing bladder cancer in women with haematuria based solely on reproductive factors.


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