Effects of fermented ginseng on memory impairment and β-amyloid reduction in Alzheimer's disease experimental models

  • Kim, Joonki ;
  • Kim, Sung Hun ;
  • Lee, Deuk-Sik ;
  • Lee, Dong-Jin ;
  • Kim, Soo-Hyun ;
  • Chung, Sungkwon ;
  • Yang, Hyun Ok
  • Received : 2012.08.03
  • Accepted : 2012.10.02
  • Published : 2013.01.15


This study examined the effect of fermented ginseng (FG) on memory impairment and ${\beta}$-amyloid ($A{\beta}$) reduction in models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in vitro and in vivo. FG extract was prepared by steaming and fermenting ginseng. In vitro assessment measured soluble $A{\beta}42$ levels in HeLa cells, which stably express the Swedish mutant form of amyloid precursor protein. After 8 h incubation with the FG extract, the level of soluble $A{\beta}42$ was reduced. For behavioral assessments, the passive avoidance test was used for the scopolamine-injected ICR mouse model, and the Morris water maze was used for a transgenic (TG) mouse model, which exhibits impaired memory function and increased $A{\beta}42$ level in the brain. FG extract was treated for 2 wk or 4 mo on ICR and TG mice, respectively. FG extract treatment resulted in a significant recovery of memory function in both animal models. Brain soluble $A{\beta}42$ levels measured from the cerebral cortex of TG mice were significantly reduced by the FG extract treatment. These findings suggest that FG extract can protect the brain from increased levels of $A{\beta}42$ protein, which results in enhanced behavioral memory function, thus, suggesting that FG extract may be an effective preventive or treatment for AD.


Panax ginseng;Fermented ginseng;Alzheimer's disease;Beta-amyloid;Animal model


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