Combustive Characteristics of Pinus Rigida Specimens Treated with Bis-(dialkylaminoalkyl) Phosphinic Acid Derivatives

비스-디알킬아미노알킬 포스핀산 유도체로 처리된 리기다 소나무 시험편의 연소특성

  • Jin, Eui (Fire & Disaster Prevention Research Center, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Chung, Yeong-Jin (Department of Fire & Disaster Prevention, Kangwon National University)
  • 진의 (강원대학교 소방방재연구센터) ;
  • 정영진 (강원대학교 소방방재공학과)
  • Received : 2013.08.07
  • Accepted : 2013.09.03
  • Published : 2013.12.10


This study was performed to test the combustive properties of pinus rigida specimens treated with bis-(dimethylaminomethyl) phosphinic acid, bis-(diethylaminomethyl) phosphinic acid (DEDAP), and bis-(dibuthylaminomethyl) phosphinic acid. Pinus rigida specimens were painted in three times with 15 wt% bis-(dialkylaminoalkyl) phosphinic acid solutions at the room temperature. After drying the treated specimens, combustive properties were examined by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). Combustion-retardation properties were found to be improved partially due to the treated bis-(dialkylaminoalkyl) phosphinic acids in the virgin pinus rigida. In particular, the specimens treated with DEDAP showed both the lower total heat release rate ($60.9MJ/m^2$) and effective heat of combustion (15.20 MJ/kg) than those of virgin plates. Compared with virgin pinus rigida plates, specimens treated with the bis-dialkylamimoalkyl phosphinic acid derivatives showed partially low combustive properties.


  1. E. Baysal, M. Altinok, M. Colak, S. K. Ozaki, and H. Toker, Fire resistance of douglas fir (psedotsuga menzieesi) treated with borates and natural extractives, Bioresour. Technol., 98, 1101 (2007).
  2. O. Grexa, E. Horvathova, O. Besinova, and P. Lehocky, Falme retardant treated plyood, Polym. Degrad. Stab., 64, 529 (1999).
  3. Y. J. Chung, Comparison of combustion proprties of native wood species used for fire pots in Korea, J. Ind. Chem. Eng., 16, 15 (2010).
  4. Article 43 of Building Code, Article 61 of Enforcement Ordinance, the Internal Finish Material of the Building (2004).
  5. Article 12 of Fire fighting Basic Law, Article 20 of Decree, the Subject Merchandise Flame and Flame Performance Standard (2005).
  6. P. W. Lee and J. H. Kwon, Effects of the treated chemicals on fire retardancy of fire retardant treated particleboards, Mogjae-Gonghak, 11, 16 (1983).
  7. T. S. Mcknight, The hygroscopicity of Wood Treated with Fire-retarding Compounds, Fore. Prod. Res. Branch, Dep. of Forestry, Canada. Report No. 190 (1962).
  8. J. C. Middleton, S. M. Dragoner, and F. T. Winters, Jr., An evaluation of borates and other inorganic salts as fire retardants for wood products, Fore. Prod. J., 15, 463 (1965).
  9. I. S. Goldstein and W. A. Dreher, A. non-hygroscopic fire retardant treatment for wood, Froe. Prod. J., 11, 235 (1961).
  10. R. Kozlowski and M. Hewig, 1st Int Conf. Progress in Flame Retardancy and Flammability Testing, Institute of Natural Fibres, Pozman, Poland (1995).
  11. R. Stevens, S. E. Daan, R. Bezemer, and A. Kranenbarg, The strucure- activity relationship of retardant phosphorus compounds in wood, Polym. Degrad. Stab., 91, 832 (2006).
  12. Y. J. Chung, Y. H. Kim, and S. B. Kim, Flame retardant properties of polyurethane produced by the addition of phosphorous containing polyurethane oligomers (II), J. Ind. Chem. Eng., 15, 888 (2009).
  13. Y. J. Chung, Flame retardancy of veneers treated by ammonium salts, J. Korean Ind. Eng. Chem., 18, 251 (2007).
  14. M. L. Hardy, Regulatory status and environmental properties of brominated flame retardants undergoing risk assessment in the EU: DBDPO, OBDPO, PeBDPO, and HBCD, Polym. Degrad. Stab., 64, 545 (1999).
  15. Y. Tanaka, Epoxy Resin chemistry and Technology, Marcel Dekker, New York (1988).
  16. V. Babrauskas, New Technology to reduce Fire Losses and Costs, eds. S. J. Grayson and D. A. Smith, Elsevier Appied Science Publisher, London, UK (1986).
  17. M. M. Hirschler, Thermal decomposition and chemical composition, 239, ACS Symposium Series, 797 (2001).
  18. ISO 5660-1, Reaction-to-Fire Tests-Heat Release, Smoke Production and Mass Loss Rate-Part 1 : Heat Release Rate (Cone Calorimeter Method), Genever (2002).
  19. C. H. Lee, C. W. Lee, J. W. Kim, C. K. Suh, and K. M. Kim, Organic phosphorus-nitrogen compounds, manufacturing method and compositions of flame retardants containing organic phosphorus- nitrogen compounds, Korean Patent, 2011-0034978 (2011).
  20. Y. J. Chung and E. Jin, Synthesis of dialkylaminoalkyl phosphonic acid and bis(dialkylaminoalkyl) phosphinic acid derivatives, Appl. Chem. Eng., 23, 383 (2012).
  21. Cischem Com, Flame Retardants, Chischem. Com. CO., Ltd (2009).
  22. W. T. Simpso, Drying and Control of Moisture Content and Dimensional Changes, Chap. 12, 1, Wood Handbook-Wood as an Engineering Material, Forest Product Laboratory U.S.D.A., Forest Service Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A. (1987).
  23. M. J. Spearpoint, Predicting the Ignition and Burning Rate of Wood in the Cone Calorimeter Using an Intergral Model, 30. NIST GCR 99-775, U.S.A. (1999).
  24. F. M. Pearce, Y. P. Khanna, and D. Raucher, Thermal Analysis in Polymer Flammability, Chap. 8, Thermal Characterization of Polymeric Materials, Academic Press, New York, U.S.A. (1981).
  25. J. D. DeHaan, Kirks's Fire Investigation, Fifth Edition, 84, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, U.S.A. (2002).
  26. V. Babrauskas, Development of cone calorimeter-a bench-scale heat release rate apparatus based on oxygen consumption, Fire Mater., 8, 81 (1984). doi: 1002/fam.810080206.
  27. V. Babrauskas and S. J. Grayson, Heat Release in Fires, 644, E & FN Spon (Chapman and Hall), London, UK (1992).
  28. M. Risholm-Sundman, M. Lundgren, E. Vestin, and P. Herder, Emissions of acetic acid and other volatile organic compounds from different species of solid wood, Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff, 56, 125 (1998).
  29. V. Babrauskas, Heat Release Rate, Section 3, The SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, Fourth ed., National Fire Protection Association, Massatusetts, U.S.A. (2008).
  30. S. Giraud, S. Bourbigot, M. Rochery, I. Vroman, L. Tighzert, R. Delobel, and F. Poutch, Flame retarded polyurea with microencasulated ammonium phosphate for textile coating, Polym. Dgred.Stab., 88, 106 (2005).
  31. J. M. Choi, A study on combustion Characteristics of fire retardant treated pinus desiflora and pinus koraensis, Mokchae Konghak, 39, 244 (2011).
  32. M. Delichatsios, B. Paroz, and A. Bhargava, Flammability properties for charring materials, Fire Safety J., 38, 219 (2003).
  33. M. J. Spearpoint and G. J. Quintiere, Predicting the burning of wood using an integral model, combustion and flame, Combust. Flame, 123, 308 (2000).
  34. M. Hagen, J. Hereid, M. A. Delichtsios, J. Zhang, and D. Bakirtzis, Flammability assesment of fire-retarded nordic spruce wood using thermogravimetric analyses and cone calorimettry, Fire Safety J., 44, 1053 (2009).
  35. J. G. Quintire, Principles of Fire Behavior, Chap. 5, Cengage Learning, Delmar, U.S.A. (1998).

Cited by

  1. Combustion Characteristics of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) Painted with Alkylenediaminoalkyl-Bis-Phosphonic Acids vol.25, pp.5, 2014,
  2. Combustive Properties of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) Specimens Treated with Alkylenediaminoalkyl-Bis-Phosphonic Acid Derivatives vol.28, pp.4, 2014,
  3. Evaluation of Combustion Gas for Carbon Oxide of Wood Coated with Bis-(dialkylaminoalkyl) Phosphinic Acids Additives vol.30, pp.4, 2016,