The Effects of δ-ferrite on Weldment of 9-12% Cr Steels

9-12% Cr강의 용접부에 미치는 δ-ferrite의 영향

  • Received : 2013.12.19
  • Accepted : 2013.12.20
  • Published : 2013.12.31


As the energy consumption increases rapidly, power generation needs the high energy efficiency continuously. To achieve the high efficiency of power generation, the materials used have to endure the higher temperature and pressure. The 9-12%Cr steels possess good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and creep strength in high temperature due to high Cr contents. Therefore, the 9-12%Cr steels are widely used for the high-temperature components in power plants. Even though the steels usually have a fully martensitic microstructure, they are susceptible to the formation of ${\delta}$-ferrite specifically during the welding process. The formation of ${\delta}$-ferrite has several detrimental effects on creep, ductility and toughness. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid its formation. As the volume fraction of ${\delta}$-ferrite is less than 2% in microstructure, it has the isolated island morphology and causes no significant degradation on mechanical properties. For ${\delta}$-ferrite above 2%, it has a polygonal shape affecting the detrimental influence on the mechanical properties. The formation of ${\delta}$-ferrite is affected by two factors: a chemical composition and a welding heat input. The most effective ways to get a fully martensite microstructure are to reduce the chromium equivalent less than 13.5, to keep the difference between the chromium and nickel equivalent less than 8, and to reduce the welding heat input.


9-12%Cr steel;Delta ferrite;Austenite;Carbide;Heat input;Cooling rate


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