Preliminary Study on the Usefulness of Psychological Scale Measurements in Depression Symptoms

우울증상에 대한 심리척도의 유용성에 대한 기초연구 -비우울증, 화병과의 비교를 중심으로-

  • Received : 2013.11.05
  • Accepted : 2013.12.16
  • Published : 2013.12.30


Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of psychological measurements in depression symptoms as compared with non-depressions and hwabyung. Methods: A total of 21 patients, who were diagnosed with depression and hwabyung, were evaluated by using the SCL-90-R, BDI, STAI, STAXI, ISI, HRSD, 20-Item Alexithymia Scale, BSDS and NEO-PI. Thereafter, they were statistically analyzed. Results: 1) In the results of SCL-90-R, the PST score group of hwa-byung group without depression was significantly higher when compared to the score from the depression group without hwa-byung. 2) In the results of NEO-PI, the NEO-PI-O score of hwa-byung group without depression was significantly higher when compared to the score from the depression group without hwa-byung. 3) In the results of 20-Item Alexithymia Scale, the total score and score of difficulty for identifying feelings scale from the depression group was significantly higher when compared to the score of non depression group. Conclusions: The results found are expected to serve as a useful resource for future studies when developing the instruments of oriental medical evaluations for hwa-byung.




  1. Katona C, Robertson M. Psychiatry at a Glance-Third Edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
  2. Kim HL, Shin HS. Mental Health Problems. Hakjisa; 2001.
  3. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994;317-29.
  4. Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs. The Epidemiological Survey of Mental Disorders in Korea. 2011. Available from: URL:
  5. National Health Insurance Service. Medical Insurance Statistics. Available from: URL:
  6. Kang HW, Jang HH, Kang IS, Moon HC, Hwang YJ, Lyu YS. A Study on The Oriental-medical Understanding of Depression. Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2011;12(2):1-15.
  7. Min SK. A Study of the Concept of Hwabyung. J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc. 1989;28(4):604-16.
  8. Park JH, Min SK, Lee MH. A Study on the Diagnosis of Hwabyung. J Korean Neuuropsychiatr Assoc. 1997;36(3):496-502.
  9. Lee HY, Kim JW, Park JH, et al. A Study for Diagnosis and Pattern Identification of Hwa Byung. Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2005;16(1):1-17.
  10. Lim HJ, Kim SH, Lee SR, et al. Interim Report about the Effect of Bunsimgi-eum (Fenxinqiyin) on the Chest Discomfort of Hwa-byung's Major Symptom. Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2009;20(3):169-88.
  11. Choi WC, Park DM, Lee SR, et al. Interim Report about the Effect of Sihogayonggolmoryeo-tang on the Anxiety of Hwa-byung. Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2012;23(4):133-52.
  12. Lee GE, Kim NK, Kim HY, et al. The Effects of Acupuncture Treatment on Hwa-byung Patient's Insomnia: Patient-assessor Blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial. J of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2012;23(1):31-48.
  13. Park DM, Lee SR, Jung IC. A Case Series of Hwa-Byung Patients Using Instrument of Pattern Identification for Hwa-Byung and Instrument of Oriental Medical Evaluation for Hwa-Byung. Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2011;22(1):25-35.
  14. Park DM, Lee SR, Jung IC. The Correlation of Psychological Scale Measurements in Depression, Anxiety, and Insomnia Patients and its Value. Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2012;23(3):63-76.
  15. Chung SY, Park JH, Kim SH, Kim JW, Whang WW, Kwon JH. Comparison between Major Depressive Disorder & Hwabyung (Culture Bound Syndrome) Using the SCL-90-R. Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2004;15(2):45-51.
  16. Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Korea University. Handbook of Psychological Scales. Seoul: Hakjisa; 2000:383-7, 419-24, 464-6.
  17. Kim JT, Shin DK. A Study Based on the Standardization of the STAI for Korea. The New Medical Journal. 1978;21(11):70-2.
  18. Chon KK, Kim DY, Yi JS. Development of the STAXI-K: IV. Korean Journal of Art Therapy. 2000;7(1):33-50.
  19. Jacobs GD, Pace-Schott EF, Stickgold R, Otto MW. Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Pharmacotherapy for Insomnia. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1888-96.
  20. Yi JS, Bae SO, Ahn YM, Park DB, Noh KS, Shin HK, et al. Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (K-HDRS). Journal of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association. 2005;44(4):456-65.
  21. Ghaemi NS, Miller CJ, Berv DA, Klugman J, Rosenquist KJ, Pies RW. Sensitivity and Specificity of a New Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale. J Affect Disord 2005;84(2-3):273-7.
  22. Wang HR, Kim SE, Kang SH, Joo YH, Kim CY. A Validation Study of the Korean Version of the Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale for Detecting Bipolar Disorder. Journal of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association. 2008;47(6):533-9.
  23. Shin HK, Won HT. A Study on the Development of the Korean Alexithymia Scale. The Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1997;16(2):219-31.
  24. Min BM, Lee KI, Jeong JC. NEO-PI-R: PSI Consulting; 1997.
  25. Kim NS, Kim KH, Lee SM, Paik JW, Lee BR. Medical Usage and Level of Medical Quality of Depressed Patients. Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service; 2009.
  26. Lee JW, Hong MC, Shin MK, Bae HS. Comparison of Nelumbinis Semen Extract with Hypericum Perforatum and Fluoxetine in Animal Model of Depression. Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology. 2006;20(4):830-43.
  27. Seok SH, Kim JH, Kim GW, Koo BS. A Case of Insomnia Incurable by Neuropsychiatric Medication Alone, but Made Possible with Sarn-Hwang-Sa-Sim-Tang. Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2006;17(3):117-29.
  28. Kang HS, Lee JH, Kim JY, Sung WY. A Clinical Report of Two Patients with Depression and Menopausal Symptoms Improved by Korean Traditional Treatment and Psychotherapy. Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2009;20(2):177-86.
  29. Chang MK, Kim GW, Koo BS. Anti-depressant Effect of the Extracts of Aconitum Carmichaeli. Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2009;20(3):49-64.
  30. Lim KW, Jung IC, Lee SR. The Effects of BunSimGiEum-Gami-Bang (Fenxinqiyinjiameifang) on Serotonin of P815 cell. Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2011;22(2):147-62.
  31. Sim TK, Jung IC, Lee SR. The Effect of Gamisoyo-san (Jiaweixiaoyaosan) on Serotonin Metabolism. Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2011;22(1):37-51.
  32. Chang SM, Sohn JH, Lee JY, Choi JH, Cho SJ, Jeon HJ, et al. Characteristics of Diagnostic Criteria for Depression in Korea. Journal of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association. 2007;46(5):447-52.
  33. Cho HJ, Chae JH, Jun TY. The Overview of Clinical Asessment Tools for Depression. Journal of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association. 2007;46(2):110-21.
  34. Ahn HE, Ahn CK. Guidelines of NEO Personality Inventory. Korea Guidance; 1988.
  35. Sifneos PE. The Prevalence of 'Alexithymic' Characteristics in Psychosomatic Patients. Psychother Psychosom. 1973;22:255-62.
  36. Ryu SH. Quality of Life of Patients with Depressive Disorder Receiving Antidepressants: Relationship between Quality of Life and Alexithymia. Korean J Psychopharmacol. 2009;20:316-24.
  37. Duddu V, Isaac MK, Chaturvedi SK. Alexithymia in Somatoform and Depressive Disorders. J Psychosom Res. 2003;54:435-8.
  38. Kirmayer LJ, Robbins JM. Cognitive and Social Correlates of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Psychosomatics. 1993;34(1):41-52.

Cited by

  1. Factors Affecting on Suicidal Ideation in Community Dwelling Elders vol.26, pp.1, 2015,