Variation of Soil Physical Characteristics by Drainage Improvement in Poorly Drained Sloping Paddy Field

배수불량 경사지 논 토양의 배수방법에 따른 토양 물리성 변화

  • Received : 2012.09.21
  • Accepted : 2012.10.15
  • Published : 2012.10.30


The lower portion of sloping paddy fields normally contains excessive moisture and the higher water table caused by the inflow of ground water from the upper part of the field resulting in non-uniform water content distribution. Four drainage methods namely Open Ditch, Vinyl Barrier, Pipe Drainage and Tube Bundle for multiple land use were installed within 1-m position from the lower edge of the upper embankment of sloping alluvial paddy fields. This study was conducted to evaluate soil physical characteristics by drainage improvement in poorly drained sloping paddy field. The results showed that subsurface drainage by Pipe Drainage improves the productivity of poorly drained soils by lowering the water table and improving root zone soil layer condition. In an Pipe drainage plot, soil moisture drained faster as compared to the other drainage methods. Infiltration rate showed high tendency to Piper Drainage method about $20.87mm\;hr^{-1}$ than in Open Ditch method $0.15mm\;hr^{-1}$. And Similarly soil water and degree of hardness and shear strength phase of soil profile showed a tendency to decrease. From the above results, we found that when an subsurface drainage was established with at 1m position from the lower edge paddy levee of the upper field in sloping poorly drained paddy fields Pipe Drainage was the most effective drainage system for multiple land use.


Soil physical characteristics;Subsurface drainage systems;Infiltration rate;Moisture content;Gray horizon


  1. Zucker, L.A. and Brown(Eds), L.C. 1998. Agricultural drainage: Water quality impacts and subsurface drainage studies in the Midwest, The Ohio State University Extension Bulletin 871. The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
  2. USDA. 1996. Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. soil survey investions report No. 42 version 3.0.
  3. Wesseling, J. and W.R. van Wijk. 1957. Soil physical conditions in relation to drain depth. In: Luthin, J.N. (Ed.), Drainage of Agricultural Lands. Madison, WI, p:461-504.
  4. Wesseling, J. 1974. Crop growth and wet soils. In J. van Schitfgaard(Ed) Drainage for Agriculture. Agron. Monogr. 17.ASA. Madison. WI. p:39-90.
  5. Lee, S.H., Y. An, S.H. Yoo, and Y.S. Jung. 2001. Desalinization effect of subsurface drainage system with rice hull packing. J. Korean Soc. Agri. Eng. 43(5): 63-69.
  6. Liefers, V.J. and R.L. Rothwell. 1987. Effects of drainage on substrate temperature and physiology of some trees and shrubs in an Alberta Peatland. Can. J. Forest Res. 17:97-104.
  7. MIFAFA. 2004. Agricultural drainage criteria. Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Gwacheon, Korea.
  8. NIAST. 2000. Methods of soil chemical analysis. National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, RDA, Suwon, Korea.
  9. Plamenac, N. 1988. Effects of subsurface drainage on heavy hydromorphic soil in the Nelindvor area, Yugoslavia. Agricultural Water Management. 14:19-27.
  10. Skaggs, R.W., S. Hardjoamidjojo, E.H. Wiser, and E.A. Hiler. 1982. Simulation of crop response and subsurface drainage systems. Trans. ASAE 25(6):1673-1678.
  11. USDA. 1993. Soil survey manual.
  12. Kim, C.U. 1976. Studies on improvement of low and wet paddy field underdrainage(I) -Change of decreasing water depth and ground water level. Research Review Kyungpook National Univ. 22: 331-338.
  13. Kim, C.U. 1976. Studies on improvement of low and wet paddy field underdrainage(II) -Change of moisture content and bearing capacity of soil. Research Review Kyungpook National Univ. 24:423-436.
  14. Kim, L.Y., H.Y. Cho, and K.H. Han. 2003. Effects of tile drain on physicochemical properties and crop productivity of soils under newly constructed plastic film house. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 36(3):154-162
  15. Kim, D.S., J.E. Yang, Y.S. Ok, and K.Y. You. 2006. Effect of perforated PVC underdrainage pipe on desalting of plastic film house soils. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 39(2):65-72.
  16. Kwun, S.K., D.O. Jung, and W.D. Han. 1980. Influence of subsurface drain spacing desalinization and drainage tidal reclamation lands. RDA. J. Agri. Sci. 22:1-9.
  17. Hiler, E.A. 1976. Drainage requirements of crops Proc. ASEA, Third national Drainage Symposium. ASAE, p:127-129.
  18. Ji, G.H. 1981. Study on Subsurface drainage system for the multipurpose paddy field. Journal of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers 23(4):15-20.
  19. Joo, J.H. 1976. A study of underground drainage in low and wet paddy field. Jinju A. & F. Jr. coll. 14:199-204.
  20. Joo, J.H. 1978. A study of underground drainage in low and wet paddy field(VI). Jinju A. & F. Jr. coll. 16:183-188.
  21. Jun, J.H., C.H. Yang, K.B. Lee, and J.K. Nam. 1994. Effect of mole drainage on soybean growth in paddy field (Jeonbug series, Aeric Halaquepts). Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 27(4):296-302.
  22. Jung, S.J., C.S. Park, G.S. Hyen, S.K. Rim, G.H. Cho, and Y.T. Jung. 1996. Land suitability classification and it's distribution for paddy-upland rotations in Korea. RDA. J. Agri. Sci. 38(1): 357-363.
  23. Darcy, H. 1856. Les Fontaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon, Dalmont, Paris.
  24. Doh, D.H., S.J. Kim, S.K. Jin, and R.C. Jo. 1994. A study on variation of the soil physical characteristics of multiutilized paddy field by the introduction of subsurface drainage facility. Journal of Life Science 1:87-96.
  25. Evans, C.V. and D.P. Franzmeier. 1986. Saturation aeration and color patterns in atoposequence of soil in north-central Indiana. Soil Sci. soc. Am. J. 50:975-980.
  26. Gardner, W.K., M.F. Drendel, and G.K. McDonald. 1994. Effects of subsurface drainage, cultivation and stubble retention on soil porosity and crop growth in a high rainfall area. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 34:411-418.
  27. Han, W.D., D.H. Jung, and H.C. Kim. 1970. Study on mole drainage. p. 13-19. In Research report of agro-environment research. Institute of Agricultural Engineerring & Utilization, Suwon, Korea.
  28. Black, C.A. 1965. Methods of soil analysis, Part I. Am. Soc. Agron, Medison, USA.
  29. Box, J.E.Jr. 1991. The effect of waterloogging on rooting intermittent flooding on germination and seeding growth of cotton. Trans. ASAE. 14:567-570.
  30. Cannell, R.Q. and M.B. Jackson. 1981. Alleviating aeration stress. p. 141-192. In G.f. Arkin and H.M. Talors (ed) Modifying the root environment to reduce crop stress. ASAE. St.Joseph. MI.

Cited by

  1. Effects of Drainage Depths on Agronomic Characteristics, Yield and Feed Value of Silage Corn Hybrid in Paddy Field of Lowland vol.35, pp.2, 2015,