DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

A Review of the Quality Control of Global Ocean Temperature and Salinity Data

전지구 수온 및 염분 자료 품질 관리에 관한 논의

  • Chang, You-Soon (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory of National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, Princeton University Forrestal Campus)
  • 장유순 (미국 해양 대기청 지구유체역학 연구소, 프린스턴 대학교 포레스털 캠퍼스)
  • Received : 2012.09.25
  • Accepted : 2012.10.13
  • Published : 2012.10.31

Abstract

High-density temperature and salinity profiles from the successful international Argo project made it possible to reproduce the three-dimensional global ocean state in near-real time, which also increased much attention on the data analysis studies of global ocean. This paper reviewed several important issues on the recent data analysis studies such as systematic biases of XBT (eXpendable BathyThermograph) and Argo data, sea level budget discrepancy between steric height and satellite observed data, heat content change, and the current status of the development of objective analysis fields. This study also emphasized that it is required to carry out very cautious ocean data quality control and understand global-scale ocean variability prior to analyzing the regional-scale ocean climate change, particularly, in the East Asian marginal Seas.

Keywords

Argo;XBT;sea level;heat content;objective analysis

References

  1. Balmaseda, M., Vidard, A., and Anderson, D., 2008, The ECMWF system 3 ocean analysis system. Monthly Weather Review, 136, 3018-3034. https://doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2433.1
  2. Behringer, D.W., 2007, The global ocean data assimilation system at NCEP. 11th Symposium on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, AMS 87th Annual Meeting, Henry, B., Gonzales Convention Center, San Antonio, Texas, 12 p.
  3. Behringer, D.W. and Xue, Y., 2004, Evaluation of the global ocean data assimilation system at NCEP: The Pacific Ocean. Eighth Symposium on Integrated Observing and Assimilation System for Atmosphere, Ocean, and Land Surface, AMS 84th Annual Meeting, Washington State Convention and Trade Center, Seattle, Washington, 11-15.
  4. Bindoff, N., Willebrand, J., Artale, V., Cazenave, A., Gregory, J., Gulev, S., Hanawa, K., LeQuéré, C., Levitus, S., Nojiri, Y., Shum, C.K., Talley, L., and Unnikrishnan, A., 2007, Observations: Oceanic climate change and sea level. In Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M., and Miller, H.L. (eds.), Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment report of the Intergouvernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 385-428.
  5. Böme, L. and Send, U., 2005, Objective analyses of hydrographic data for referencing profiling float salinities in highly variable environments, deep sea research part II. Tropical Studies in Oceanography, 52, 651-664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.12.014
  6. Boyer, T., Levitus, S., Garcia, H., Locarnini, R., Stephens, C., and Antonov, J., 2005, Objective analysis of annual, seasonal, and monthly temperature and salinity for the world ocean on a 0.25 grid. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 931-945. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1173
  7. Carnes, M.R., 2009, Description and evaluation of GDEM V 3.0. Naval Rearch Lab, memorandum 7330-09-9165, 21 p.
  8. Carnes, M.R., Helber, W.R., Barron, C.N., and Dastugue, J.M., 2010, Validation test report for GDEM4. Naval Rearch Lab, A343035, 66 p.
  9. Carton, J.A. and Giese, B.S., 2008, A reanalysis of ocean climate using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA). Monthly Weather Review, 146, 2999-3017.
  10. Carton, J.A. and Santorelli, A., 2008, Global upper ocean heat content as viewed in nine analyses. Journal of Climate, 21, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2489.1. https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2489.1
  11. Cazenave, A., Dominh, K., Guinehut, S., Berthier, E., Liovel, W., Ramillien, G., Ablain, M., and Larnicol, G., 2009, Sea level budget over 2003-2008: A reevalution from GRACE space gravimetry, satellite altimetry and Argo. Global Planetary Change, 65, doi:10.1016/j.glophacha.2008.10.004 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.glophacha.2008.10.004
  12. Chang, Y.-S. and Shin, H.-R., 2012, Objective analysis of monthly temperature and salinity around the southwestern East Sea (Japan Sea) on a $0.1^{\circ}$ grid. Continental Shelf Research, 45, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2012.06.001. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2012.06.001
  13. Chang, Y.-S., Rosati, A., and Vecchi, G.A., 2010, Basin patterns of global sea level changes for 2004-2007. Journal of Marine Systems, 80, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2009.11.003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2009.11.003
  14. Chang, Y.-S., Rosati, A., and Zhang, S., 2011a, A construction of pseudo salinity profiles for the global ocean: Method and evaluation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, doi:10.1029/2010JC006386. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006386
  15. Chang, Y.-S., Rosati, A., Zhang, S., and Harrison, M.J., 2009, Objective analysis of monthly temperature and salinity for the world ocean in the 21st century: Comparison with World Ocean Atlas and application to assimilation validation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, doi:10.1029/2008JC004970. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JC004970
  16. Chang, Y.-S., Zhang, S., and Rosati, A., 2011b, Improvement of salinity representation in an ensemble coupled data assimilation system using pseudo salinity profiles. Geophysical Research Letter, 38, L13609, doi:10.1029/2011GL048064. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL048064
  17. Chang, Y.-S., Zhang, S., Rosati, A., Delworth, T.L., and Stern, W.F., 2012, An assessment of oceanic variability for 1960-2010 from the GFDL ensemble coupled data assimilation. Climate Dynamics, online first, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1412-2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1412-2
  18. DiNezio, P.N. and Goni, G., 2010, Identifying and estimating biases between XBT and Argo observations using satellite altimetry. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 27, 226-240. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JTECHO711.1
  19. Domingues, C.M., Church, J.A., White, N.J., Gleckler, P.J., Wijffels, S.E., Barker, P.M., and Dunn, J.R., 2008, Improved estimates of upper-ocean warming and multidecadal sea-level rise. Nature, 453, 1090-1094. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07080
  20. Drevillon, M., Bourdalle-Badie, R., Derval, C., Drillet, Y., Lellouche, J.-M., Remy, E., Tranchant, B., Benkiran, M., Greiner, E., Guinehut, S., Verbrugge, N., Garric, G., Testut, C.-E., Laborie, M., Nouel, L., Bahurel, P., Bricaud, C., Crosnier, L., Dombrowsky, E., Durand, E., Ferry, N., Hernandez, F., Le Galloudec, O., Messal, F., and Parent, L., 2008, The GODAE/Mercator-Ocean global ocean forecasting system: Results, applications and prospects. Journal of Operational Oceanography, 1, 51-57.
  21. Fukumori, I., 2002, A partitioned kalman filter and smoother. Monthly Weather Review, 130, 1370-1383. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<1370:APKFAS>2.0.CO;2
  22. Gaillard, F., Autret, E., Thierry, V., Galaup, P., Coatanoan, C., and Loubrieu, T., 2009, Quality control of large Argo data sets. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 26, 337-351. https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JTECHO552.1
  23. Good, S.A., 2011, Depth biases in XBT data diagnosed using bathymetry data. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 28, doi:10.1175/2010JTECHO773.1. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JTECHO773.1
  24. Gouretski, V., 2012, Using GEBCO digital bathymetry to infer depth biases in the XBT data. Deep Sea Research Part I, 62, 40-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2011.12.012
  25. Gouretski, V. and Reseghetti, F., 2010, On depth and temperature biases in bathythermograph data: Development of a new correction scheme based on analysis of a global ocean database. Deep Sea Research Part I, 57, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2010.03.011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2010.03.011
  26. Gouretski, V.V. and Koltermann, K.P., 2007, How much is the ocean really warming? Geophysical Research Letters, 34, doi:10.1029/2006GL027834. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027834
  27. Hamon, M., Reverdin, G., and Le Traon, P.-Y., 2012, Empirical correction of XBT data. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 29, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00129.1. https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00129.1
  28. Hanawa, K., Rual, P., Bailey, R., Sy, Y., and Szabados, M., 1995, A new depth-time equation for Sippican or TSK T-7, T-6 and T-4 expendable bathythermographs (XBT). Deep Sea Research Part I, 42, 1423-1451. https://doi.org/10.1016/0967-0637(95)97154-Z
  29. Heinmiller, R.H., Ebbesmeycr, C.C., Taft, B.A., Olson, D.B., and Nikitin, O.P., 1983, Systematic errors in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) profiles. Deep Sea Research Part I, 30, 1185-1196. https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(83)90096-1
  30. Hosoda, S., Ohira, T., and Nakamura, T., 2008, A monthly mean dataset of global oceanic temperature and salinity derived from Argo float observations. JAMSTEC Report of Research Development, 8, 47-59. https://doi.org/10.5918/jamstecr.8.47
  31. Ingleby, B. and Huddleston, M., 2007, Quality control of ocean temperature and salinity profiles - historical and real- time data. Journal of Marine Systems, 65, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.11.019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.11.019
  32. Ishii, M. and Kimoto, M., 2009, Reevaluation of historical ocean heat content variations with an XBT depth bias correction. Journal of Oceanography, 65, doi:10.1007/s10872-009-0027-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-009-0027-7
  33. Ishii, M., Kimoto, M., Sakamoto, K., and Iwasaki, S.-I., 2006, Steric sea level changes estimated from historical ocean subsurface temperature and salinity analyses. Journal of Oceanography, 62, 155-170. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-006-0041-y
  34. Kizu, S. and Hanawa, K., 2002, Recorder-dependent temperature error of expendable bathythermograph. Journal of Oceanography, 58, 469-476. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021261214950
  35. Kizu, S., Yoritaka, H., and Hanawa, K., 2005, A new fallrate equation for T-5 expendable bathythermograph (XBT) by TSK. Journal of Oceanography, 61, 115-121. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-005-0024-4
  36. Kohl, A. and Stammer, D., 2008, Decadal sea level changes in the 50-year GECCO ocean synthesis. Journal of Climate, 21, 1876-1890. https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI2081.1
  37. Lee, T., Awaji, T., Balmaseda, M., Ferry, N., Fujii, Y., Fukumori, I., Giese, B., Heimbach, P., Kohl, A., Masian, S., Remy, El., Rosati, A., Schodlok, M., Stammer, D., and Weaver, A., 2010, Consistency and fidelity of Indonesian-throughflow total volume transport estimated by 14 ocean data assimilation products. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, 50, doi:10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2009.12.004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2009.12.004
  38. Lee, T., Fukumori, I., Menemenlis, D., Xing, Z., and Fu, L.-L., 2002, Effects of the Indonesian throughflow on the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 32, 1404-1429. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(2002)032<1404:EOTITO>2.0.CO;2
  39. Leuliette, E.W. and Miller, L., 2009, Closing the sea level rise budget with altimetry, Argo, and GRACE. Geophysical Research Letter, 36, doi:10.1029/2008GL036010. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036010
  40. Leuliette, E.W. and Willis, J.K., 2011, Balancing the sea level budget. Oceanography, 24, 122-129.
  41. Levitus, S., 1982, Climatological atlas of the world ocean, US. Government Printing Office, NOAA professional paper 13, 190 p.
  42. Levitus, S., Antonov, J., and Boyer, T., 2005, Warming of the world ocean, 1955-2003. Geophysical Research Letter, 32, doi:10.1029/2004GL021592. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL021592
  43. Levitus, S., Antonov, J., and Boyer, T., 2009, Global ocean heat content 1955-2007 in light of recently revealed instrumentation problems. Geophysical Research Letter, 36, doi:10.1029/2008GL037155. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL037155
  44. Lombard, A., Garcia, D., Ramillien, G., Cazenaver, A., Biancale, R., Lemoine, J.M., Flechtner, F., Schmidt, R., and Ishii, M., 2007, Estimation of steric sea level variations from combined GRACE and Jason-1 data. Earth and Planetary Science Letter, 254, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.11.035 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2006.11.035
  45. Lyman, J., Willis, J.K., and Johnson, G.C., 2006, Recent cooling of the upper ocean. Geophysical Research Letter, 33, doi:10.1029/2006GL027033. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027033
  46. Owens, W.B. and Wong, A.P.S., 2009, An improved calibration method for the drift of the conductivity sensor on autonomous CTD profiling floats by theta-S climatology. Deep Sea Research Part I, 56, 450-457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2008.09.008
  47. Park, J.J. and Kim, K., 2007, Evaluation of calibration salinity from profiling floats with high resolution conductivity-temperature-depth data in East/Japan Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, doi:10.1029/2006JC003869. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JC003869
  48. Purkey, S.G. and Johnson, G.C., 2010, Warming of global abyssal and deep Southern Ocean waters between the 1990s and 2000s: Contributions to global heat and sea level rise budgets. Journal of Climate, 23, 6336-6351. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3682.1
  49. Ridgway, K.R., Dunn, J.R., and Wilkin, J.L., 2002, Ocean interpolation by four-dimensional least squares - application to the waters around Australia. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 19, 1357-1375. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(2002)019<1357:OIBFDW>2.0.CO;2
  50. Roemmich, D. and Gilson, J., 2009, The 2004-2008 mean and annual cycle of temperature, salinity and steric height in the global ocean from Argo program. Progress in Oceanography, 82, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2009.03.004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2009.03.004
  51. Seaver, G.A. and Kuleshov, A., 1982, Experimental and analytical error of the expendable bathythermograph. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 12, 592-600. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1982)012<0592:EAAEOT>2.0.CO;2
  52. Stammer, D., Köhl, A., Awaji, T., Balmaseda, M., Behringer, D., Carton, J., Ferry, N., Fischer, A., Fukumori, I., Giese, B., Haines, K., Harrison, E., Heimbach, P., Kamachi, M., Keppenne, C., Lee, T., Masina, S., Menemenlis, D., Ponte, R., Remy, E., Rienecker, M., Rosati, A., Schroeter, J., Smith, D., Weaver, A., Wunsch, C., and Xue, Y., 2010, Multimodel ensemble ocean synthesis in support of climate diagnostics. In Hall, J., Harrison, D.E., and Stammer, D. (eds.), Proceedings of the "OceanObs09: Sustained ocean observations and information for society" conference. ESA Publication WPP-306, Venice, Italy, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.16. https://doi.org/10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.16
  53. Teague, W.J., Carron, M.J., and Hogan, P.J., 1990, A comparison between the generalized digital environmental model and levitus climatologies. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95, 7167-7183. https://doi.org/10.1029/JC095iC05p07167
  54. Trenberth, K.E. and Fasullo, J.T., 2010, Tracking earth's energy. Science, 328, 316-317. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1187272
  55. Usui, N., Ichizaki, S., and Fujii, Y., 2006. Meteorological Research Institute multivariate ocean variational estimation (MOVE) system: Some early results natural harzards and oceanographic processes from satellite data book series. Advances in Space Research, 37, 806-822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.09.022
  56. Vernieres, G., Keppenne, C., Rienecker, M.M., Jacob, J., and Kovach, R., 2011, The GEOS-ODAS, description and evaluation. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation, NASA/TM-2012-104606.
  57. White, W.B., 1995, Design of a global observing system for gyre-scale upper ocean temperature variability. Progress in Oceanography, 36, 169-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6611(95)00017-8
  58. Wijffels, S.E., Willis, J.K., Domingues, C.M., Barker, P., White, N.J., Gronell, A., Ridgway, K., and Church, J.A., 2008, Changing expendable bathythermograph fall rates and their impact on estimates of thermosteric sea level rise. Journal of Climate, 21, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2290.1. https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2290.1
  59. Willis, J.K., Chambers, D.P., and Nerem, R.S., 2008, Assessing the globally averaged sea level budget on seasonal to interannual timescales. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, doi:10.1029/2007JC004517. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JC004517
  60. Willis, J.K., Lyman, J.M., Johnson, G.C., and Gilson, J., 2007, Correction to "Recent cooling of the upper ocean". Geophysical Research Letter, 34, doi:10.1029/2007GL030323. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL030323
  61. Willis, J.K., Lyman, J.M., Johnson, G.C., and Gilson, J., 2009, In situ data biases and recent ocean heat content variability. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 26, 846-852. https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JTECHO608.1
  62. Wong, A., Keeley, K., and Carvel, T., 2006, Argo data management quality control manual, version 2.2. ARGO, ar-um-04-01, 33 p.
  63. Wong, A.P.S., Johnson, G.C., and Owens, W.B., 2003, Delayed-mode calibration of Autonomous CTD profiling float salinity data by Theta-S climatology. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 20, 308-318. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(2003)020<0308:DMCOAC>2.0.CO;2
  64. Xue, Y., Balmaseda, M., Boyer, T., Ferry, N., Good, S., Ishikawa, I., Kumar, A., Rienecker, M., Rosati, A., and Yin, Y., 2012, A comparative analysis of upper ocean heat content variability from an ensemble of operational ocean reanalyses. Journal of Climate, 25, doi:10.1175/JCLID-11-00542.1. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLID-11-00542.1
  65. Xue, Y., Huang, B., Hu, Z.Z., Kumar, A., Wen, C., Behringer, D., and Nadiga, S., 2011, An assessment of oceanic variability in the NCEP climate forecast system reanalysis. Climate Dynamics, 37, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0954-4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0954-4
  66. Yin, Y., Alves, O., and Oke, P.R., 2011, An ensemble ocean data assimilation system for seasonal prediction. Monthly Weather Review, 139, 786-808. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010MWR3419.1
  67. Zhang, S., Harrison, M.J., Rosati, A., and Wittenberg, A., 2007, System design and evaluation of coupled ensemble data assimilation for global oceanic studies. Monthly Weather Review, 135, 3541-3564. https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR3466.1
  68. Zhu, J., Huang, B., and Balmaseda, M.A., 2012, An ensemble estimation of the variability of upper-ocean heat content over the tropical Atlantic Ocean with multi-ocean reanalysis products. Climate Dynamics, online first, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1189-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-011-1189-8

Cited by

  1. Intercomparison of the Global Ocean Reanalysis Data vol.20, pp.2, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7850/jkso.2015.20.2.102
  2. Development and Application of an Experimental Program forMapping Temperature and Salinity Distribution around theKorean Marginal Seas Using Ocean Data View vol.36, pp.4, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5467/JKESS.2015.36.4.367