Evaluating Various Nitrogen Sources for Divot Recovery on Creeping bentgrass

Creeping bentgrass의 생육과 디봇피해 회복을 위한 질소의 유형별 효과

  • Lee, Sang-Kook (Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Hoseo University)
  • 이상국 (호서대학교 기초과학연구소)
  • Received : 2012.07.16
  • Accepted : 2012.08.03
  • Published : 2012.08.31


Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) is one of the most popular turfgrasses for high-quality playing surface such as putting green on golf courses and athletic fields. Continues damage such as divot injury on creeping bentgrass is major issue to maintain golf course properly. Although plentiful researches to maximize divot resistance have been reported, minimal research has focused on relation between nitrogen (N) sources and divot resistance. The study was conducted to determine the effect of N source for turfgrass divot recovery and overall tee performance. Eleven fertilizer treatments as N sources were applied to creeping bentgrass 'Penncross'. Before the first application, divot injuries were simulated by removing a core of soil and turfgrass from established plots and backfilling with native soil. Data collection included turfgrass color and quality. N release speed did not influenced divot recovery. Frequency of urea application had no effects on divot recovery. Urea with split application had no difference with no treatment for divot recovery. Polyon product especially polyon mini (41-0-0) had the best performance for divot recovery and for maintaining better turfgrass quality. Overall, small particle size of slow-release N form would influence creeping bentgrasss to recover divot damage.


  1. Breard, J. B. 1973. Turfgrass: Science and culture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall.
  2. Beard, J.B. and S.I. Sifers. 1990. Feasibility assessment of randomly oriented interlocking mesh element matrices for turfed root zones. pp. 154-165. In R.C. Schmidt et al. (ed.) Natural and artificial playing fields: Characteristics and safety features. American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Technical Publication 1073, West Conshohocken, PA.
  3. Breard, J. B. 2002. Turf management for golf courses. Ann Arbor Press. Chelsea, MI.
  4. Calhoun, R.N. 1996. Effect of three Plant growth regulators and two nitrogen regimes on growth and performance of creeping bentgrass. M.S. thesis. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing.
  5. Carrow, R.N. and A.M. Petrovic. 1992. Effects of traffic on turfgrass. pp 285-330. In D.V. Waddington et al. (Ed.) Turfgrass. Agron. Monogr. 32. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI.
  6. Christians, N. E. 2011. Fundamentals of turfgrass management. 4th ed. Wiley & Sons Inc. Hoboken, NJ.
  7. Cuddeback, S. and A.M. Petrovic. 1985. Traffic effects on the growth and quality of Agrostis palustris Huds. pp 411-416. In F. Lemaire (Ed) Proc. Int. Turfgrass Res. Conf., 5th, Avignon. 1-5 July 1985. INRA Publ., Versailles, France.
  8. Dernoeden, P.H. 2002. Creeping bentgrass management: Summer stresses, weeds, and selected maladies. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
  9. Exner, M.E., M.E. Burbach, D.G. Watts, R.C. Sherman, and R.F. Spalding. 1991. Deep nitrate movement in the unsaturated zone of a simulated urban lawn. J. Environ. Qual. 20:658-662
  10. Fry, J. and B. Huang. 2004. Applied turfgrass science and physiology. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
  11. Fry, L.R., M.D. Richardson, and D.E. Karcher. 2008. An improved method for simulating divot injury on turfgrass. Crop Sci. 48:2459-2462. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2008.01.0038
  12. Guertal, E. A and Hicks. C. A. 2009. Nitrogen source and rate effects on the establishment of 'Tifsport' and 'Tifway' hybrid bermudagrass. Crop. Sci. 49:690-695. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2008.07.0436
  13. Karcher, D.E., M.D. Richardson, J.W. Landreth, and J.H. McCalla, Jr. 2005. Recovery of bermudagrass varieties from divot injury. Available at www. lantmanagementnetwork.org. July 20, 2012.
  14. Kruse. K.K.and K.E. Kenworthy. 2009. Fertility and traffic on eight bermudagrass cultivars in florida. USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Summary p. 59.
  15. McCarty, L.B. 2001. Best golf course management practices. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  16. McNitt, A.S. and P.J. Landschoot. 2005. The effects of soil reinforcing materials on the traction and divot resistance of sand root zone. Int. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 10:1115-1122.
  17. Rosenberg, N. J. 1964. Response of plants to the physical effects of soil compaction. Adv. Agron. 16:181-196.
  18. SAS Institute Inc. 2001. The SAS system release 8.2 for Windows. SAS Inst., Cary, NC
  19. Steinke. K. and J. C. Stier. 2003. Nitrogen selection and growth regulator applications for improving shaded turf performance. Crop Sci. 43:1399-1406. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2003.1399
  20. Waldron, L.J. 1977. The shear resistance of root-permeated homogeneous and stratified soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41:843-849. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1977.03615995004100050005x