DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content and Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility in Wheat Shorts and Red Dog for Growing Pigs

  • Huang, Q. ;
  • Piao, X.S. ;
  • Ren, P. ;
  • Li, D.F.
  • Received : 2012.05.29
  • Accepted : 2012.08.11
  • Published : 2012.12.01

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical composition of wheat shorts and red dog on energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and to establish prediction models to estimate their digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy content and as well as their standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acid content. For Exp. 1, sixteen diets were fed to thirty-two growing pigs according to a completely randomized design during three successive periods. The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal while the other fifteen diets contained 28.8% wheat shorts (N = 7) or red dog (N = 8), added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Over the three periods, each diet was fed to six pigs with each diet being fed to two pigs during each period. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in wheat shorts and red dog averaged 75.1 and 87.9%. The DE values of wheat shorts and red dog averaged 13.8 MJ/kg (range 13.1 to 15.0 MJ/kg) and 15.1 MJ/kg (range 13.3 to 16.6 MJ/kg) of dry matter, respectively. For Exp. 2, twelve growing pigs were allotted to two $6{\times}6$ Latin Square Designs with six periods. Ten of the diets were formulated based on 60% wheat shorts or red dog and the remaining two diets were nitrogen-free diets based on cornstarch and sucrose. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an indigestible marker in all diets. There were no differences (p>0.05) in SID values for the amino acids in wheat shorts and red dog except for lysine and methionine. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and SID values for lysine in different sources of wheat shorts or red dog, which averaged 78.1 and 87.8%, showed more variation than either methionine or tryptophan. A stepwise regression was performed to establish DE, ME and amino acid digestibility prediction models. Data indicated that fiber content and amino acid concentrations were good indicators to predict energy values and amino acid digestibility, respectively. The present study confirms the large variation in the energy content and amino acid digestibility in wheat shorts and red dog, and describes the factors that influence this variation and presents equations based on chemical composition that could probably be used to predict the DE and ME values as well as the amino acid digestibility of wheat shorts and red dog.

Keywords

Prediction;Digestibility;Growing Pigs;Wheat Shorts;Red Dog

References

  1. AAFCO. 1996. Official publication. Assoc. Am. Feed Control Off. Inc., St. Louis. MO, USA.
  2. AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis. 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
  3. Adeola, O. 2001. Digestion and balance techniques in pigs. In: Swine Nutrition, 2nd ed. (Ed. D. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press, New York, pp. 903-916.
  4. Batterham, E. S., C. E. Lewis, R. F. Lowe and C. J. McMillan. 1980. Digestible energy content of cereals and wheat by-products for growing-pigs. Anim. Prod. 31:259-271. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100024594
  5. Blasi, D. A., G. L. Kuhl, J. S. Drouillard, C. R. Reed, D. M. Trigo-Stockli, K. C. Behnke and F. J. Fairchild. 1998. Wheat middlings: Composition, feeding value, and storage guidelines. MF-2353. Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, Manhattan, Kansas.
  6. Chinese Feed Database. 2005. Tables of feed composition and nutritive values for pigs in China. The Center of Chinese Feed Database Information, Beijing. http://www.chinafeeddata. org.cn Accessed May 2007 (in Chinese).
  7. Cozannet, P., Y. Primot, C. Gady, J. P. Metayer, P. Callu, M. Lessire, F. Skiba and J. Noblet. 2010. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in wheat distillers dried grains with solubles for pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 158:177-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2010.04.009
  8. Cromwell, G. L., T. R. Cline, J. D. Crenshaw, T. D. Crenshaw, R. A. Easter, R. C. Ewan, C. R. Hamilton, G. M. Hill, A. J. Lewis, D. C. Mahan, J. L. Nelssen, J. E. Pettigrew, T. L. Veum and J. T. Yen. 2000. Variability among sources and laboratories in analyses of wheat middlings. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2652-2658. https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.78102652x
  9. Eklund, M., R. Mosenthin, H. -P. Piepho and M. R. Rademacher. 2008. Estimates of basal ileal endogenous losses of aminoa acids by regression analysis and determination of standardized ileal aminoa acid digestibilities from casein in newly weaned pigs. J. Sci. Food Agric. 88:641-651. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3129
  10. Erickson, J. P., E. R. Miller, P. K. Ku, G. F. Collings and J. R. Black. 1985. Wheat middlings as a source of energy, amino-acids, phosphorus and pellet binding quality for swine diets. J. Anim. Sci. 60:1012-1020. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1985.6041012x
  11. Fan, M. Z., W. C. Sauer and K. A. Lien. 1994. Effect of dietary amino acid level on the determination of apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2851-2859. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.72112851x
  12. Fan, M. Z. and W. C. Sauer. 1995a. Determination of apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in barley and canola meal for pigs with direct difference, regression methods. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2364-2374. https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.7382364x
  13. Fan, M. Z. and W. C. Sauer. 1995b. Determination of apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in peas for pigs with direct difference, regression methods. Livest. Prod. Sci. 44:61-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(95)00057-R
  14. Holden, P. J. and D. R. Zimmerman. 1991. Utilization of cereal grain by-products in feeding swine. In: Swine Nutrition. (Eds. E. R. Miller, D. E. Ullrey and A. J. Lewis). Butterworth, London. pp. 585-593.
  15. Huang, S. X., W. C. Sauer and B. Marty. 2001. Ileal digestibilities of neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, and amino acids associated with neutral detergent fiber in wheat shorts for growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2388-2396. https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.7992388x
  16. Huang, S. X., W. C. Sauer, B. Marty and R. T. Hardin. 1999. Amino acid digestibilities in different samples of wheat shorts for growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2469-2477. https://doi.org/10.2527/1999.7792469x
  17. Jondreville, C., J. V. D. Broecke, F. Grosjean, S. V. Cauwenberghe and F. Gatel. 2000. Ileal true digestibility of amino acids in wheat milling by-products for pigs. Ann. Zootech. 49:55-65. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2000108
  18. Kim, J. C., P. H. Simmins, B. P. Mullan and J. R. Pluske. 2005. The digestible energy value of wheat for pigs, with special reference to the post-weaned animal [review]. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 122:257-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.02.022
  19. Le Goff, G. and J. Noblet. 2001. Comparative total tract digestibility of dietary energy and nutrients in growing pigs and adult sows. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2418-2427. https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.7992418x
  20. Li, S., W. C. Sauer and R. T. Hardin. 1994. Effect of dietary fibre level on amino acid digestibility in young pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 74:327-333. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas94-044
  21. Low, A. G. 1980. Nutrient absorption in pigs. J. Sci. Food Agric. 31:1087-1130. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740311102
  22. NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine 10th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.
  23. Patience, J. F., L. G. Young and I. McMillan. 1977. Utilization of wheat shorts in swine diets. J. Anim. Sci. 45:1294-1301. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1977.4561294x
  24. Sauer, W. C., S. C. Stothers and R. J. Parker. 1977. Apparent and true availabilities of amino acids in wheat and milling by-products for growing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 57:775-784. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas77-099
  25. Sauvant, D., J. M. Perez and G. Tran. 2004. Tables of composition and nutritive value of feed materials. Pigs, Poultry, Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Rabbits, Horses, Fish. INRA Editions, Versailles, France.
  26. Slominski, B. A., D. Boros, L. D. Campbell, W. Guenter and O. Jones. 2004. Wheat by-products in poultry nutrition. Part I. Chemical and nutritive composition of wheat screenings, bakery by-products and wheat mill run. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 84:421-428. https://doi.org/10.4141/A03-112
  27. Song, G. L., D. F. Li, X. S. Piao, F. Chi and W. J. Yang. 2003. Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the digestible and metabolizable energy content of high-oil corn varieties and its effects on growth performance of pigs. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 57:297-306. https://doi.org/10.1080/00039420310001594432
  28. Stein, H. H., B. Seve, M. F. Fuller, P. J. Moughan and C. F. de Lange. 2007. Invited review: Amino acid bioavailability and digestibility in pig feed ingredients: Terminology and application. J. Anim. Sci. 85:172-180. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2005-742
  29. Stein, H. H., C. F. Shipley and R. A. Easter. 1998. Technical note: A technique for inserting a T-cannula into the distal ileum of pregnant sows. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1433-1436. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.7651433x
  30. Wan, H. F., W. Chen, Z. L. Qi, P. Peng and J. Peng. 2009. Prediction of true metabolizable energy from chemical composition of wheat milling by-products for ducks. Poult. Sci. 88:92-97. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2008-00160
  31. Zijlstra, R. T., C. F. M. de Lange and J. F. Patience. 1999. Nutritional value of wheat for growing pigs: Chemical composition and digestible energy content. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 79:187-194. https://doi.org/10.4141/A98-103

Cited by

  1. Effects of inclusion level on nutrient digestibility and energy content of wheat middlings and soya bean meal for growing pigs vol.67, pp.5, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1080/1745039X.2013.837233
  2. Effects of Inclusion Levels of Wheat Bran and Body Weight on Ileal and Fecal Digestibility in Growing Pigs vol.28, pp.6, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.14.0769