Use of Awamori-pressed Lees and Tofu Lees as Feed Ingredients for Growing Female Goats

  • Nagamine, Itsuki ;
  • Sunagawa, Katsunori ;
  • Kishi, Tetsuya
  • Received : 2012.07.03
  • Accepted : 2012.09.03
  • Published : 2012.12.01


Okinawan Awamori is produced by fermenting steamed indica rice with black mold, yeast, and water. Awamori-pressed lees is a by-product of the Awamori production process. Tofu lees is a by-product of the Tofu production process. This research consisted of two experiments conducted to elucidate whether or not dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees can be used as a mixed feed ingredient for raising female goats. In experiment 1, digestion trials were conducted to ascertain the nutritive values of dried Awamori-pressed lees and dried Tofu lees for goats. The digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) contents of dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees were 22.5%, 22.5% (DCP), and 87.2%, 94.4% (TDN) respectively. In experiment 2, 18 female goats (Japanese Saanen${\times}$Nubian, three months old, body weight $15.4{\pm}0.53$ kg) were divided into three groups of six animals (control feed group (CFG), Awamori-pressed lees mixed feed group (AMFG), Tofu lees mixed feed group (TMFG)). The CFG control used feed containing 20% soybean meal as the main protein source, while the AMFG and TMFG treatments used feed mixed with 20% dried Awamori-pressed lees or dried Tofu lees. The groups were fed mixed feed (volume to provide 100 g/d increase in body weight) twice a day (10:00, 16:00). The klein grass hay and water was given ad libitum. The hay intake was measured at 08:00 and 16:00. Body weight and size measurements were taken once a month. At the end of the experiment, a blood sample was drawn from the jugular vein of each animal. The DCP and TDN intakes in AMFG and TMFG showed no significant difference to the CFG. Cumulative measurements of growth in body weight, withers height, chest depth, chest girth, and hip width over the 10 mo period in the AMFG and TMFG were similar to the CFG. By contrast, cumulative growth in body length and hip height in the AMFG and TMFG tended to be larger than the CFG. Cumulative growth in chest width in the AMFG was significantly larger (p<0.05) than the CFG. Blood parameter values were similar to those in normal goats reported by other scientists. The coats of the AMFG and TMFG animals looked shinier than the animals in the CFG. The results demonstrate that dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees can be used as a feed ingredient for the raising female goats.


Awamori-pressed Lees;Tofu Lees;Growth;Body Size;Female Goat


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