DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of Harvesting Frequency, Variety and Leaf Maturity on Nutrient Composition, Hydrogen Cyanide Content and Cassava Foliage Yield

  • Hue, Khuc Thi (Goat and Rabbit Research Center) ;
  • Van, Do Thi Thanh (National Institute of Animal Sciences) ;
  • Ledin, Inger (Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) ;
  • Wredle, Ewa (Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) ;
  • Sporndly, Eva (Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)
  • Received : 2012.01.31
  • Accepted : 2012.05.02
  • Published : 2012.12.01

Abstract

The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves.

Keywords

Manihot esculenta Crantz;Cassava Foliage;Harvesting Frequency;Variety;Yield;HCN

References

  1. Alves, A. A. C. 2002. Botany and physiology. In: in Cassava: biology, production and utilization (Ed. R. J. Hillocks, J. M. Thresh and A. C. Belotti). Wallingford, Oxon, GBR, CABI Publishing, CAB International. Chapter 5, 67-89.
  2. AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th end Association of Official Analytical Chemist., Washington, DC, USA. 1, pp. 69-90.
  3. Arvidsson, K. and J. Sandberg. 2003. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) foliage - a crop by-product and potential protein feed for dairy cattle in Vietnam. Minor field studies no 231, SLU communications, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
  4. Awoyinka, A., V. Abegunde and S. R. A. Adewusi. 1995. Nutrient content of young cassava leaves and assessment of their acceptance as a green vegetable in Nigeria. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 47:21-28. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01088163
  5. Caradus, J. R., A. Mackay, J. F. L. Charlton and D. F. Chapman. 1990. Genecology of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) from wet and dry hill country pastures. N.Z. J. Agric. Res. 33:377-384. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.1990.10428434
  6. Dahler, J., C. Mcconchie and C. Turnbull. 1995. Quantification of cyanogenic glycosides in seedlings of three Macadamia (Proteaceae) species. Aust. J. Bot. 43:619-628. https://doi.org/10.1071/BT9950619
  7. Du Toit, J. T., J. P. Bryant and K. Frisby. 1990. Regrowth and palatability of Acacia shoots following pruning by African savanna browsers. Ecology 71:149-154. https://doi.org/10.2307/1940255
  8. Dung, N. T., I. Ledin and N. T. Mui. 2005. Intercropping cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla); effect on biomass yield and soil fertility. Livest. Res. Rural Develop. 17:1-13.
  9. El-Sharkawy, M. A. 2006. Review: International research on cassava photosynthesis, productivity, eco-physiology, and responses to environmental stresses in the tropics. Photosynthetica 44:481-512. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-006-0063-0
  10. Elias, M., D. McKey, O. Panaud, M. Anstett and T. Robert. 2001. Traditional management of cassava morphological and genetic diversity by the Makushi Amerindians (Guyana, South America): Perspectives for on-farm conservation of crop genetic resources. Euphytica 120:143-157. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1017501017031
  11. Erdmann, T. K., P. K. R. Nair and B. T. Kang. 1993. Effects of cutting frequency and cutting height on reserve carbohydrates in Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp. For. Ecol. Manage. 57:45-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(93)90161-F
  12. Gleadow, R. M. and I. E. Woodrow. 2002. Mini-Review: constraints on effectiveness of cyanogenic glycosides in herbivore defense. J. Chem. Ecol. 28:1301-1313. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016298100201
  13. Gomez, G. and M. Valdivieso. 1985. Cassava foliage: chemical composition, cyanide content and effect of drying on cyanide elimination. J. Sci. Food Agric. 36:433-441. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740360602
  14. Hang D. T. and T. R. Preston. 2005. The effects fo simple processing methods of cassava leaves on HCN content and intake by growing pigs. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 17:99. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd17/9/hang17099.htm
  15. Hong, N. T. T., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn, P. Pakdee and P. Rowlinson. 2003. Effects of timing of initial cutting and subsequent cutting on yields and chemical compositions of cassava hay and its supplementation on lactating dairy cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1763-1769. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.1763
  16. Hue, K. T., D. T. T. Van, I. Ledin, E. Spörndly and E. Wredle. 2010. Effect of feeding fresh, wilted and sun-dried foliage from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) on the performance of lambs and their intake of hydrogen cyanide. Livest. Sci. 131: 155-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.03.012
  17. Khang, D. N., H. Wiktorsson and T. R. Preston. 2005. Yield and chemical composition of cassava foliage and tuber yield as influenced by harvesting height and cutting interval. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1029-1035. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.1029
  18. Lamont, B. B. 1993. Injury-induced cyanogenesis in vegetative and reproductive parts of two Grevillea species and their F1 hybrid. Ann. Bot. 71:537. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1993.1069
  19. Mlingi, N. L. V., Z. A. Bainbridge, N. H. Poulter and H. Rosling. 1995. Critical stages in cyanogen removal during cassava processing in southern Tanzania. Food Chem. 53:29-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(95)95782-2
  20. Mui, N. T. 1994 Economic evaluation of growing Elephant grass, Guinea grass, Sugarcane and Cassava as animal feed or as cash crops on Bavi high land. In: Sustainable Livestock Production on Local Feed Resources. Agricultural Publishing House, p. 16-19.
  21. Oni, A. O., C. F. I. Onwuka, O. M. Arigbeda, U. Y. Anele, O. O. Oduguwa, O. S. Onifade and Z. L. Tan. 2011. Chemical composition and nutritive value of four varieties of cassava leaves grown in South-Western Nigeria. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 95:583-590. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2010.01086.x
  22. Peters, D. J. and C. P. Constabel. 2002. Molecular analysis of herbivore induced condensed tannin synthesis: cloning and expression of dihydroflavonol reductase from trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides). Plant J. 32:701-712. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-313X.2002.01458.x
  23. Phengvichith, V., S. Ledin, P. Horne and I. Ledin. 2006. Effects of different fertilizers and harvest frequencies on foliage and tuber yield and chemical composition of foliage from two cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) varieties. Tropic. Subtropic. Agroeco. 6:178-187.
  24. Phengvilaysouk, A. and M. Wanapat. 2008. Study on the effect of harvesting frequency on cassava foliage for cassava hay production and its nutritive value. Livest. Res. Rural Develop. 20.
  25. Ravindran, G. and V. Ravindran. 1988. Changes in the nutritional composition of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves during maturity. Food Chem. 27:299-309. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(88)90014-3
  26. Ravindran, V. 1993. Cassava leaves as animal feed: potential and limitations. J. Sci. Food Agric. 61:141-150. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740610202
  27. Reed, J. D., R. E. McDowell, P. J. Van Soest and J. Horvath. 1982. Condensed tannins: A factor limiting the use of cassava forage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 33:213-220. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740330302
  28. Sagrilo, E., P. S. Vidigal Filho, M. G. Pequeno, M. C. G. Vidigal, C. A. Scapim, M. V. Kvitschal, R. R. Maia and F. Rimoldi. 2006. Effect of harvest period on foliage production and dry matter distribution in five cassava cultivars during the second plant cycle. Brazil. Archive. Biol. Technol. 49:1007-1018. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132006000700019
  29. SAS, 2008. SAS/Stat 9.2 User's guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  30. Simwambana, M. S. C., T. U. Ferguson and D. S. O. Osiru. 1992. The effects of time to first shoot removal on leaf vegetable quality in cassava (Manihot esculaenta Crants). J. Sci. Food Agric. 60:319-325. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740600308
  31. Stochmal, A. and W. Oleszek. 1997. Changes of cyanogenic glucosides in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) during the growing season. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45:4333-4336. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf970435e
  32. Taiz, L. and E. Zeiger. 1998. Plant Physiology. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer.
  33. van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  34. Ubi, B. E., U. A. Ibiam, A. A. Effisue, E. M. Odu, K. I. Udeh and C. N. Egesi. 2008. Varietal differences in leaf cyanide content of cassava (Manihot esculentum Crantz). J. Agric. Biotechnol. Ecol. 1:62-69.
  35. Vetter, J. 2000. Plant cyanogenic glycosides. Toxicon., 38:11-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0041-0101(99)00128-2
  36. Wanapat, M. 2001. Role of cassava hay as animal feed in the tropics. In proceeding of the international workshop on current research and development on use as cassava as animal feed. (Ed. T. R. Preston, B. Ogle and M. Wanapat), Khon Kean University, Thailand.
  37. Wanapat, M. 2003. Manipulation of cassava cultivation and utilization to improve protein to energy biomass for livestock feeding in the tropics. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:463-472. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.463

Cited by

  1. Effect of replacing alfalfa hay with a mixture of cassava foliage silage and sweet potato vine silage on ruminal and intestinal digestion in sheep pp.13443941, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12925