The Effect of Erythrosine-mediated Photodynamic Therapy on Intraorally Formed Biofilm on Titanium Surface

  • Park, Se-Hwan (Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Oral Sciences, College of Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University) ;
  • Lee, Si-Young (Department of Oral Microbiology, Research Institute for Oral Sciences, College of Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University) ;
  • Chang, Beom-Seok (Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Oral Sciences, College of Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University) ;
  • Um, Heung-Sik (Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Oral Sciences, College of Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University) ;
  • Lee, Jae-Kwan (Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Oral Sciences, College of Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University)
  • Received : 2012.07.12
  • Accepted : 2012.09.11
  • Published : 2012.09.30


The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using erythrosine and a halogen light source to treat a biofilm formed on a machined surface titanium disk in vivo. Ten volunteers carried an acrylic appliance containing six machined surface titanium disks on the upper jaw over a period of five days. After the five days of biofilm formation period, the disks were removed. PDT using 20 ${\mu}M$ erythrosine and halogen light was then applied to the biofilms formed on the disks. Experimental samples were divided into a negative control group (no erythrosine and no irradiation), E0 group (erythrosine 60s + no irradiation), E30 group (erythrosine 60s + halogen light 30s), and E60 group (erythrosine 60s + halogen light 60s). Following PDT, the bacteria in the biofilm were found to be detached from each disk. Each suspension with detached bacteria were diluted and cultivated on a blood-agar plate for five days under anaerobic conditions. The cultivated bacterial counts in the E60 group were significantly lower than the control group (86.4%) or E0 group (76.7%). In the experimental groups also, the light exposure time and bacterial counts showed a negative correlation. In conclusion, PDT using erythrosine and halogen light has bactericidal effects on biofilms formed on a titanium disk in vivo. Notably, applying 20 ${\mu}M$ erythrosine and 60 seconds of halogen light irradiation had a significantly potent effect.


  1. Scarano A, Piattelli M, Caputi S, Favero GA, Piattelli A. Bacterial adhesion on commercially pure titanium and zirconium oxide disks: an in vivo human study. J Periodontol. 2004;75:292-6.
  2. Paquette DW, Brodala N, Williams RC. Risk factors for endosseous dental implant failure. Dent Clin North Am. 2006;50:361-74, vi.
  3. Quirynen M, De Soete M, van Steenberghe D. Infectious risks for oral implants: a review of the literature. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2002;13:1-19.
  4. Mombelli A, Lang NP. The diagnosis and treatment of peri-implantitis. Periodontol 2000. 1998;17:63-76.
  5. Matarasso S, Quaremba G, Coraggio F, Vaia E, Cafiero C, Lang NP. Maintenance of implants: an in vitro study of titanium implant surface modifications subsequent to the application of different prophylaxis procedures. Clin Oral Implants Res. 1996;7:64-72.
  6. Augthun M, Tinschert J, Huber A. In vitro studies on the effect of cleaning methods on different implant surfaces. J Periodontol. 1998;69:857-64.
  7. O'Mahony A, MacNeill SR, Cobb CM. Design features that may influence bacterial plaque retention: a retrospective analysis of failed implants. Quintessence Int. 2000;31:249-56.
  8. Elter C, Heuer W, Demling A, Hannig M, HeidenblutT, Bach FW, et al. Supra- and subgingival biofilm formation on implant abutments with different surface characteristics. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2008;23:327-34.
  9. Burgers R, Gerlach T, Hahnel S, Schwarz F, Handel G, Gosau M. In vivo and in vitro biofilm formation on two different titanium implant surfaces. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2010;21:156-64.
  10. Soukos NS, Goodson JM. Photodynamic therapy in the control of oral biofilms. Periodontol 2000. 2011;55:143-66.
  11. Konopka K, GoslinskiT. Photodynamic therapy in dentistry. J Dent Res. 2007;86:694-707.
  12. Foster JS, Kolenbrander PE. Development of a multispecies oral bacterial community in a saliva-conditioned flow cell. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:4340-8.
  13. Kolenbrander PE, Andersen RN, Blehert DS, Egland PG, Foster JS, Palmer RJ, Jr. Communication among oral bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66:486-505
  14. Kroes I, Lepp PW, Relman DA. Bacterial diversity within the human subgingival crevice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999;96:14547-52.
  15. Moore WE, Moore LV. The bacteria of periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000. 1994;5:66-77.
  16. Paster BJ, Boches SK, Galvin JL, Ericson RE, Lau CN, Levanos VA, Sahasrabudhe A, Dewhirst FE. Bacterial diversity in human subgingival plaque. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3770-83.
  17. Al-Ahmad A, Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad M, Faust J, Bachle M, Follo M, Wolkewitz M, Hannig C, Hellwig E, Carvalho C, Kohal R. Biofilm formation and composition on different implant materials in vivo. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2010;95:101-9.
  18. Wilson M, Burns T, Pratten J. Killing of Streptococcus sanguis in biofilms using a light-activated antimicrobial agent. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1996;37:377-81.
  19. Soukos NS, Mulholland SE, Socransky SS, Doukas AG. Photodestruction of human dental plaque bacteria: enhancement of the photodynamic effect by photomechanical waves in an oral biofilm model. Lasers Surg Med. 2003;33:161-8.
  20. Haas R, Dortbudak O, Mensdorff-Pouilly N, Mailath G. Elimination of bacteria on different implant surfaces through photosensitization and soft laser. An in vitro study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 1997;8:249-54.
  21. Wood S, Nattress B, Kirkham J, Shore R, Brookes S, Griffiths J, Robinson C. An in vitro study of the use of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of natural oral plaque biofilms formed in vivo. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1999;50:1-7.
  22. Nakazato G, Tsuchiya H, Sato M, Yamauchi M. In vivo plaque formation on implant materials. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1989;4:321-6.
  23. Uzel NG, Teles FR, Teles RP, Song XQ, Torresyap G, Socransky SS, Haffajee AD. Microbial shifts during dental biofilm re-development in the absence of oral hygiene in periodontal health and disease. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38:612-20.
  24. Tanner A, Maiden MF, Lee K, Shulman LB, Weber HP. Dental implant infections. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25 Suppl 2:S213-7.
  25. Subramani K, Jung RE, Molenberg A, Hammerle CH. Biofilm on dental implants: a review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2009;24:616-26.
  26. Furst MM, Salvi GE, Lang NP, Persson GR. Bacterial colonization immediately after installation on oral titanium implants. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2007;18:501-8.
  27. Zanin IC, Goncalves RB, Junior AB, Hope CK, Pratten J. Susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans biofilms to photodynamic therapy: an in vitro study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;56:324-30.
  28. Lin GH, Brusick DJ. Mutagenicity studies on FD&C red No.3. Mutagenesis. 1986;1:253-9
  29. Wood S, Metcalf D, Devine D, Robinson C. Erythrosine is a potential photosensitizer for the photodynamic therapy of oral plaque biofilms. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;57:680-4.