Potential of Onion Peel Extract as a Functional Ingredient for Functional Foods

건강기능성식품 기능성원료로서 양파껍질추출물의 품질특성

  • Received : 2012.06.16
  • Accepted : 2012.08.24
  • Published : 2012.09.30


Onion peels is a natural source of high-value functional ingredients produced in the onion industry without suitable processing. The objective of this study was to evaluate characteristics of onion peel extract (OPE), including its biological activities, obtained from solvent extraction in 3 times pilot scales (Lot A, B, and C). Mineral analysis showed that K was present in the largest amount (13,767.56-15,506.78 ppm), followed by Na and Ca at 8,602.44-9,796.00 ppm and 4,255.78-4,903.33 ppm, respectively. The amounts of total phenol, total flavonoid, and quercetin in the OPE were in the ranges of 598.57~626.73, 211.73~233.64, and 93.78~107.29 mg/g, respectively. The biological activities such as antioxidant and effects of fibrinolysis increased in parallel with the concentration of OPE. The $IC_{50}$ value of DPPH radical scavenging activity was in the range of 517.58~557.32 ppm in the OPE. The $IC_{50}$ value for superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity was in the range of 11,900.91~12,690.35 ppm. A clear zone of OPE (20,000 ppm) in fibrinolysis test was three times higher than the plasmin as a reference. In conclusion, OPE could be used as a good source of antioxidants and fibrinolytic activities.


Onion peel extract;quercetin;DPPH radical scavenging activity;SOD-like activity;fibrinolysis


  1. AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis. 16th ed. pp, 69-74, Association of official analytical chemists, Washington DC.
  2. Ariyama, K., Nishida, T., Noda, T., Kadokura, M. and Yasui, A. 2006. Effects of fertilization, crop year, variety and provenance factors on mineral concentration in onions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 3341-3350.
  3. Astrup, T. and Mullertz, S.1952. The fibrin plate method for estimating fibrinolytic activity. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 40, 346-351.
  4. Augusti, K. T. 1996. Therapeutic values onions (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L). Indian J. Exp. Biol. 34, 634-640.
  5. Bang, H. A. and Cho, J. S. 1998. Antioxidant effects on various solvent extracts from onion peel and onion flesh. J. Korea Nutr. Soc. 4, 14-19.
  6. Basra, A. S., Singh, B. and Malik, C. P. 1994. Amelioration of the effects of ageing in onion seeds by osmotic priming and associated changes in oxidative metabolism. Biologia. Plantarum 36, 365-371.
  7. Bilyk, A. D., Cooper, P. L. and Sapers, G. M. 1984. Varietal differences in distribution of quercetin and kaempferol in onion (Allium cepa L.) tissue. J. Agric. Food Chem. 32, 274-276.
  8. Blois, M. S. 1958. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181, 1199-1200.
  9. Cha, Y. J., Jeong, E. J., Jeon, S. Y. and Baek, J. H. 2011. Method for preparation of onion process residuum extract having antioxidant and fibrinolysis. Korean Patent. 10-1101189.
  10. Chen, J. H. and Ho, C. T. 1997. Antioxidant activities of caffeic acid and its related hydroxycinnamic acid compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 2374-2378.
  11. Dewanto, V., Wu, X., Adom, K. K. and Liu, R. H. 2002. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 3010-3014.
  12. Herrmann, K. 1976. Flavonols and flavones in food plants, A review. J. Food Tech. 11, 433-448.
  13. Hubbard, G. P., Stevens, J. M., Cicmil, M., Sage, T., Jordan, P. A., Williams, C. M., Lovegrove, J. A. and Gibbins, J. M. 2003. Quercetin inhibits collagen-stimulated platelet activation through inhibition of multiple components of the glycoprotein VI signaling pathway. J. Thromb. Haemost. 1, 1079-1088.
  14. Hubbard, G. P., Wolffram, S., de Vos, R., Bovy, A., Gibbins, J. M. and Lovegrove, J. A. 2006. Ingestion of onion soup high in quercetin inhibits platelet aggregation and essential components of the collagen-stimulated platelet activation pathway in man: a pilot study. Br. J. Nutr. 96, 482-488.
  15. Hubbard, G. P., Wolffram, S., Lovegrove, J. A. and Gibbins, J. M. 2003. The role of polyphenolic compounds in the diet as inhibitors of platelet function. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 62, 468-478.
  16. Iqbal, S., Bhanger, M. I. and Anwar, F. 2005. Antioxidant properties and components of some commercially available varieties of rice bran in Pakistan. Food Chem. 93, 265-272.
  17. Jang, E. K., Seo, J. H. and Lee, S. P. 2008. Physiological activity and antioxidative effects of aged black garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extracts. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 40, 443-448.
  18. Jang, H. S. 2009. Quality stability of concentrated onion extracts having biological activity during storage. MS Thesis. Changwon National University. Changwon, Korea.
  19. Jeon, S. Y., Baek, J. H., Jeong, E. J. and Cha, Y. J. 2012. Optimal extraction conditions of flavonoids from onion peels via response surface methodology. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 41, 695-699.
  20. Jeon, S. Y., Jeong, E. J., Baek, J. H. and Cha, Y. J. 2011. Analytical method validation of quercetin in changnyeong onion extract as a functional ingredient for functional health food. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 40, 565-569.
  21. Jeong, C. H., Kim, J. H. and Shim, K. H. 2006. Chemical components of yellow and red onion. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 35, 708-712.
  22. Jeong, I. Y. 2005. Antioxidant activity and radioprotection of two flavonoids from propolis. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 34, 162-166.
  23. KFDA. 2008. Health functional food code. Korea Food and Drug Administration, pp. III.3.6.3-1-2, Seoul, Korea.
  24. KFDA. 2009. Korea Food Code. Korea Food and Drug Administration, pp. 386-387, Seoul, Korea.
  25. KFDA. 2009. Korea Food Code. Korea Food and Drug Administration, pp. 676-683, Seoul, Korea.
  26. KFDA. 2011. Bulletin of Korea Food and Drug Administration No. 2011-34. pp. 9-11.
  27. Kim, S. J. and Kim, G. H. 2006. Quantification of quercetin in different parts of onion and its DPPH radical scavenging and antibacterial activity. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 15, 39-43.
  28. Kim, S. K. and Kim, M. K. 2004. Effect of dried powders or ethanol extracts of onion flesh and peel on lipid metabolism, antioxidative and antithrombogenic capacities in 16-month-old rats. Korean J. Nutr. 37, 623-632.
  29. Leighton, T., Ginther, C., Fluss, L., Harter, W. K., Cansado, J. and Notario, V. 1992. Molecular characterization of quercetin and quercetin glycosides in Allium vegetables. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health II, pp. 220. ACS, Washington, D.C.
  30. Marklund, S. and Marklund, G. 1974. Involvement of superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur. J. Biochem. 47, 469-474.
  31. Park, P. S. and Lee, M. Y. 1992. The Effects of Onion and Garlic on Copper- Phenanthroline Complex Induced DNA Degradation. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 21, 367-371.
  32. Park, Y. K. 1995. Source and processing technology of vegetable juice and the trend of study. Bull. Food Techonol. 8, 59-68.
  33. Rice-Evans, C. A., Miller, N. J., Bolwell, P. G., Bremley, P. M. and Pridham, J. B. 1995. The relative antioxidant activities of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids. Free Radic. Res. 22, 375-383.
  34. Singleton, V. L., Orthofer, R. and Lamuela-Raventos. R. M. 1999. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin -ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol. 299, 152-178.
  35. Shin, J. H., Lee, J. Y., Ju, J. C., Lee, S. J., Cho, H. S. and Sung, N. J. 2005. Chemical properties and nitrite scavenging ability of Citron (Citrus junos). J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 34, 496-502.
  36. Vanderhoek, J. Y., Makheja, A. N. and Bailey, J. M. 1980. Inhibition of fatty acid oxygenases by onion and garlic oils. Evidence for the mechanism by which these oils inhibit platelet aggregation. Biochem. Pharmacol. 29, 3169-3173.

Cited by

  1. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Onion (Allium cepa) Peel Hot Water Extract in vitro and in vivo vol.30, pp.4, 2015,
  2. Reduction in Residual Pesticides and Quercetin Yields in Onion Peel Extracts by Washing vol.22, pp.12, 2012,
  3. Productivity and quality characteristics of onions applied with defective onion and purslane extracts during cultivation vol.49, pp.6, 2015,
  4. Effects of green tea leaf, lotus leaf, and kimchi powders on quality characteristics of chicken liver sausages vol.61, pp.1, 2019,


Supported by : 지식경제부