DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Seasonal Phenology of the Cryptic Mealybug, Pseudococcus cryptus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Based on Attraction of Adult Males to a Sex Pheromone Trap

성페로몬 트랩에 유인된 수컷 성충에 의한 귤애가루깍지벌레의 연중 발생특성

  • Received : 2011.12.27
  • Accepted : 2012.05.10
  • Published : 2012.09.01

Abstract

The cryptic mealybug, Pseudococcus cryptus, has been increasingly damaging citrus, particularly those plants grown in plastic greenhouses. This study was conducted to monitor the seasonal phenology of adult male cryptic mealybugs and to determine the timing for control using a sex pheromone trap. Adult males responded to a synthetic sex pheromone and trap color. An increasing number of males were attracted to the traps with increasing concentrations of sex pheromone up to 5 mg. The males occurred annually four times and had three cohorts at a time due to different overwintering developmental stages. After overwintering the adult males began to in mid-late April. A positive correlation was observed between the number of adult males caught in traps and the mean density per twig of all motile stages except first stage nymphs of the cryptic mealybugs. The peak time for the first nymph to occur was estimated from the maximum attraction time of the males, and the cumulative degree days (DD) was 350 DD, similar with the preoviposition period.

Keywords

Pseudococcus cryptus;Sex pheromone;Seasonal phenology;Control timing

References

  1. Arai, T. 1996. Temperature-dependent developmental rate of three mealybug species, Pseucocuus citriculus Green, Planococcus citri (Risso) and Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on citrus. Jpn. J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 40: 25-34. https://doi.org/10.1303/jjaez.40.25
  2. Arai, T. 2000. The existence of sex pheromone of Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and a simple bioassay. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 35: 525-528. https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.2000.525
  3. Arai, T. 2002. Attractiveness of sex pheromone of Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) to adult males in a citrus orchard. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 37: 69-72. https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.2002.69
  4. Arai, T., H. Sugie, S. Hiradate, S. Kuwahara, N. Itagaki and T. Nakahara. 2003. Identification of a sex pheromone component of Pseudococcus cryptus. J. Chem. Ecol. 29: 2213-2223. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026214112242
  5. Avidov, Z. and I. Harpaz. 1969. Plant Pests of Israel. Israel University Press, Jerusalem. 549 pp.
  6. Ben-Dov, Y., D.R. Miller and G.A.P. Gibson. 2004. ScaleNet. (http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov /scalenet/scalenet.htm).
  7. Bierl-Leonhardt, B.A., D.S. Moreno, M. Schwarz, J. Fargerlund, J.R. Plimmer and E.D. Devilbiss. 1980. Identification of the pheromone of the comstock mealybug. Life Sci. 27: 399-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(80)90188-5
  8. El-kreim, A.I.A. 1998. Swarming activity of the adult males of parlatoria date scale in response to sex pheromone extracts and sticky color traps. Archiv. Phytopathol. Plant Protec. 31: 301-307. https://doi.org/10.1080/03235409809383238
  9. Hinkens, D.M., J.S. McElfresh and J.G. Millar. 2001. Identification and synthesis of the sex pheromone of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus. Tetrahedron Lett. 42: 1619-1621. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(00)02347-9
  10. Kim, D.H., H.M. Kwon and K.S. Kim. 2000. Current status of the occurrence of the insect pests in the citrus orchard in Cheju Island. Kor. J. Appl. Entomol. 39: 274-276.
  11. Kim, S.C., J.H. Song and D.S. Kim. 2008. Effect of temperature on the development and fecundity of the cryptic mealybug, Pseudococcus cryptus, in the laboratory. Kor. J. Asia-Pac. Entomol. 11: 149-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aspen.2008.07.002
  12. Mendel, Z., L. Zegelman, A. Hassner, F. Assael, M. Harel, S. Tam and E. Dunkelblum. 1995. Outdoor attractancy of males of Matsucoccus josephi (Homoptera: Matsucoccidae) and Elatophilus hebraicus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) to synthetic female sex pheromone of Matsucoccus josephi. J. Chem. Ecol. 21: 331-341. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02036721
  13. Millar, J.G., K.M. Danne, J.S. McEfresh, J.A. Moreira, R. Malakar-Kuenen, M. Guillén and W.J. Bentley. 2002. Development and optimization of methods for using sex pheromone for monitoring the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Californian vineyards. J. Econ. Entomol. 95: 706-714. https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-95.4.706
  14. Nakahata, T., N. Itagaki, T. Arai, H. Sugie and S. Kuwahara. 2003. Synthesis of the sex pheromone of the citrus mealybug, Pseudococcus cryptus. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 67: 2627-2631. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.67.2627
  15. Negishi, T., M. Uchida, Y. Tamaki, K. Mori, T. Ishiwatari, S. Asano and K. Nakagawa. 1980. Sex pheromone the comstock mealybug, Pseudococcus comstocki Kuwana: Isolation and identification. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 15: 328-333. https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.15.328
  16. SAS Institute. 1999. SAS OnlineDoc, version 8. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
  17. Vitullo, J., S. Wang, A. Zhang, C. Mannion and J.C. Bergh. 2007. Comparison of sex pheromone traps for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 100: 405-410. https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493(2007)100[405:COSPTF]2.0.CO;2
  18. Zada, A., E. Dunkelblum, M. Harel, F. Assael, S. Gross and Z. Mendel. 2004. Sex pheromone of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri: Synthesis and optimization of trap parameters. J. Econ. Entomol. 97: 361-368. https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-97.2.361
  19. Zhang, A., D. Amalin, S. Shirali, M.S. Serrano, R.A. Franqui, J.E. Oliver, J.A. Klun, J.R. Aldrich, D.E. Meyerdirk and S.L. Lapointe. 2010. Sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellioccus hirsutus, contains on unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 101: 9601-9606.

Cited by

  1. Monitoring and Mating Disruption of Pseudococcus comstocki by Uing a Sex Pheromone in Pear Orchards vol.53, pp.3, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5656/KSAE.2014.04.0.018

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 농촌진흥청