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Changes of Fruit Characteristics and Cell Wall Component during Maturation and Ripening in Asian Pear 'Hanareum', 'Manpungbae', and 'Niitaka' (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

'한아름', '만풍배' 및 '신고' 배의 성숙 기간 중 과실특성 및 세포벽 관련물질의 변화

  • Vu, Thi Kim Oanh (Department of Post-harvest Technology, Hanoi University of Agricultural) ;
  • Lee, Ug-Yong (Department of Horticulture, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Choi, Jin-Ho (Pear Research Station, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science) ;
  • Lee, Han-Chan (Pear Research Station, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science) ;
  • Chun, Jong-Pil (Department of Horticulture, Chungnam National University)
  • Received : 2012.02.16
  • Accepted : 2012.04.10
  • Published : 2012.08.30

Abstract

We investigated the changes of fruit quality parameters, polysaccharide contents and cell wall components during maturation and ripening of two Korean pear cultivar 'Hanareum' and 'Manpungbae' compared with 'Niitaka' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) which showed different physiological maturity based on days after full bloom (DAFB). Flesh firmness decreased continuously with fruit development and maturation, reaching a final level of 29.4, 33.5, and 27.4N at maturity in 'Hanareum' (127 DAFB), 'Manpungbae' (163 DAFB), and 'Niitaka' (170 DAFB), respectively. The level of ethylene production was very low in early season 'Hanareum' pear which showed at most 0.39 ${\mu}L{\cdot}L^{-1}$ at maturity and no ethylene was detected in 'Manpungbae' and 'Niitaka' at maturity. Fructose was the most abundant soluble sugar during fruit maturation in the pears tested and an increase of sucrose was observed during fruit ripening in the Asian pears commonly. Ethanol insoluble solids (EIS) content decreased gradually with different levels among the pear cultivars as fruit ripens consisted of 10.79, 12.72, and 12.75 $mg{\cdot}g^{-1}$ FW. The amount of total soluble polyuronides was higher in early season cultivars 'Hanareum' than those of mid-season cultivar 'Manpungbae' and 'Niitaka'. In 'Niitaka' which harvested most late season, the level of 4% KOH soluble hemicelluloses was lower than 'Hanareum' and 'Manpungbae' and maintained constantly during fruit ripening period. Cellulosic residues were determined high level in 'Niitaka' which showed 612.33 ${\mu}g{\cdot}mg^{-1}$ EIS at maturity when compared with 'Hanareum' (408.0 ${\mu}g{\cdot}mg^{-1}$ EIS) and 'Manpungbae' (538.67 ${\mu}g{\cdot}mg^{-1}$ EIS). The main constituents of cell wall neutral sugars which consisted of arabinose, xylose, galactose, and glucose were decreased gradually with onset of fruit ripening regardless of cultivar. Arabinose which was predominant in 'Hanareum' pear decreased at the last stage of ripening, but the changes of cell wall neutral sugar during ripening were not occurred in 'Niitaka' pear. The change of molecular mass distribution in water soluble pectin observed dominantly at the early stage of fruit development. Depolymerization of 4% KOH-soluble hemicelluloses and degradation of xyloglucan showed in early-season cultivar 'Hanareum' during fruit maturation, and degradation of those fractions were detected only at the early stage fruit development in mid-season cultivar 'Manpungbae' and 'Niitaka'. The molecular mass profile of CDTA soluble pectin, $Na_2CO_3$-SP and 24% KOH soluble hemicelluloses showed no significant change during fruit maturation regardless of cultivar.

본 실험에서는 국내에서 육성한 조생종 '한아름'과 중생종 '만풍배'를 '신고' 품종과 대조하여 과실생장 기간 중의 과실 품질요인의 변화 및 세포벽 구성물질의 변화를 조사하였다. 세 품종 모두 생육기간 중 과육의 경도는 지속적으로 감소하여 과실성숙기의 경도는 '한아름', '만풍배' 및 '신고'에서 각각 29.4, 33.5 및 27.4N으로 나타났다. 세 품종 모두 성숙기에 에틸렌발생량이 매우 낮았는데 '한아름'에서만 성숙일에 $0.39{\mu}L{\cdot}L^{-1}$를 보였고 '만풍배'와 '신고'는 성숙일에 에틸렌이 측정되지 않았다. 세 품종의 가용성당은 과당이 우점하고 있었고, 과실의 성숙과 더불어 공통적으로 자당의 비율이 증가하였다. 세 품종에서 성숙기에 조사한 알코올불용성 물질(EIS)의 함량은 조생종인 '한아름'의 경우, $10.79mg{\cdot}g^{-1}$ FW로 '만풍배'의 12.72 및 '신고'의 $12.75mg{\cdot}g^{-1}$ FW에 비해 낮았다. 총가용성 펙틴은 '한아름'이 성숙기에 $81.05{\mu}g{\cdot}mg^{-1}$ EIS로 '만풍배'의 57.88 및 '신고'의 $61.81{\mu}g{\cdot}mg^{-1}$ EIS에 비해 높은 수준이었다. 수용성펙틴 분획의 분자량 변화는 과실발육 초기에 공통적으로 유의하였다. 4% KOH 가용성 hemicelluloses 함량은 '신고'에서 $28.05{\mu}g{\cdot}mg^{-1}$ EIS로 세 품종 중 유의하게 그 수준이 낮았고 과실 성숙에 따른 큰 변화를 보이지 않았다. 셀룰로오스 함량은 '한아름'의 경우 성숙기에 $408.00{\mu}g{\cdot}mg^{-1}$ EIS, '만풍배' 및 '신고' 는 각각 538.67 및 $612.33{\mu}g{\cdot}mg^{-1}$ EIS이었다. 세포벽 구성 중성당 함량은 품종에 관계없이 과실이 비대하고 성숙이 진행됨에 따라 그 함량이 감소하는 경향을 보였다. '한아름'의 경우 우점 중성당인 arabinose 및 galactose 함량이 성숙기인 만개 후 127일에 급격히 감소하였다. 조생종인 '한아름'에서 성숙과 더불어 4% KOH 가용성 헤미셀룰로오스 및 xyloglucan의 분해가 유의하였고 '만풍배' 및 '신고'는 과실발육 초기에만 변화가 나타났다. Chelator 및 $Na_2CO_3$ 가용성펙틴과 24% KOH 가용성 헤미셀룰로오스 분획의 분자량 변화는 품종에 관계 없이 매우 제한적이었다.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 농촌진흥청

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