Socio-Demographic Correlates of Participation in Mammography: A Survey among Women Aged between 35-69 in Tehran, Iran

  • Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu (Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia) ;
  • Ahmadian, Maryam (Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia)
  • Published : 2012.06.30


Background: The rates of breast cancer have increased over the past two decades, and this raises concern about physical, psychological and social well-being of women with breast cancer. Further, few women really want to do breast cancer screening. We here investigated the socio-demographic correlates of mammography participation among 400 asymptomatic Iranian women aged between 35 and 69. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the four outpatient clinics of general hospitals in Tehran during the period from July through October, 2009. Bi-variate analyses and multi-variate binary logistic regression were employed to find the socio-demographic predictors of mammography utilization among participants. Results: The rate of mammography participation was 21.5% and relatively high because of access to general hospital services. More women who had undergone mammography were graduates from university or college, had full-time or part-time employment, were insured whether public or private, reported a positive family history of breast cancer, and were in the middle income level (all P<0.01).The largest number of participating women was in the age range of 41 to 50 years. The results of multivariate logistic regression further showed that education (95%CI: 0.131-0.622), monthly income (95%CI: 0.038-0.945), and family history of breast cancer (95%CI: 1.97-9.28) were significantly associated (all P<0.05) with mammography participation. Conclusions: The most important issue for a successful screening program is participation. Using a random sample, this study found that the potential predictor variables of mammography participation included a higher education level, a middle income level, and a positive family history of breast cancer for Iranian women, after adjusting for all other demographic variables in the model.


  1. Ahmadian M, Samah AA, Emby Z, Redzuan M (2010). Instrument development for understanding factors influencing mammography compliance among Iranian women in metropolitan Tehran, Iran. Asian Social Science, 6, 88.
  2. Ahmadian M (2011). Factors influencing women's participation in breast cancer prevention program inTehran, Iran. Doctoral research, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
  3. Ahmadian M, Samah A A, Redzuan M, Emby Z (2011). Barriers to mammography among women attending gynecologic outpatient clinics in Tehran, Iran. Scientific Res Essays, 6, 5803-11.
  4. Ahmadian M, Samah AA, Redzuan M, Emby Z (2012). Participation in breast cancer prevention: Assessing women's knowledge and their participation in mammography in Tehran, Iran. Scientific Res Essays, 7, 915-22.
  5. Ahmadian M, Samah A A (2012). A literature review of factors influencing breast cancer screening in Asian countries. Life Sci J, 9, 689-98.
  6. Babu GR, Samari G, Cohen SP, et al (2011). Breast cancer screening among females in Iran and recommendations for improved practice: a review. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 12, 1647-55
  7. Elmore JG, Armstrong K, Lehman CD, Fletcher SW (2005). Screening for breast cancer. JAMA, 293, 1245-56.
  8. Finney RL, Iannotti, R (2003). Health beliefs, salience of breast cancer family history, and involvement with breast cancer issues: Adherence to annual mammography screening recommendations. Cancer Detect Prev, 27, 353-9.
  9. Harirchi I, Ebrahimi M, Zamani N, et al (2000). Breast cancer in Iran: A review of 903 case records. Public Health, 114, 143-5.
  10. Juon HS, Seo YJ, Kim MT (2002). Breast and cervical cancer screening among Korean American elderly women. Eur J Oncol Nursing, 6, 228-35.
  11. Maxwell CJ, Bancej C, Snider J (2001). Predictors of mammography use among Canadian women aged 50-69: findings from the 1996/97National Population Health Survey. CMAJ, 164, 329-34.
  12. Mousavi SM, Montazeri A, Mohaghegi MA, et al (2007). Breast cancer in Iran: An epidemiological review. Breast J, 13, 383-91.
  13. Murabito JM, Evans JC, Larson MG, (2001). Family breast cancer history and mammography: Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Epidemiol, 154, 916-23.
  14. Shahhosseini Z (1998). Knowledge, beliefs and practice about breast self examination in female teacher of Sari city. Nameh J, 8, 35-40 (in Persian).
  15. Straughan P, Seow A (2000). Attitude as barriers in breast screening: a prospective study among Singapore women. Social Sci Med, 51, 1695-703
  16. Zapka JG, Hosmer D, Costanza M, et al (1992). Changes in mammography use: economic, need and service factors. Am J Public Health, 82, 1345-51.

Cited by

  1. Application of Health Behavior Theories to Breast Cancer Screening among Asian Women vol.14, pp.7, 2013,
  2. Breast Cancer Risk Factors in a Defined Population: Weighted Logistic Regression Approach for Rare Events vol.16, pp.2, 2013,
  3. Translation and psychometric assessment of the Persian version of the Rhodes Index of Nausea, Vomiting and Retching (INVR) scale for the assessment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting vol.23, pp.6, 2013,
  4. An Outline of the Need for Psychology Knowledge in Health Professionals: Implications for Community Development and Breast Cancer Prevention vol.15, pp.12, 2014,
  5. Facilitator Psychological Constructs for Mammography Screening among Iranian Women vol.15, pp.17, 2014,
  6. Rastreamento mamográfico do câncer de mama no Sul do Brasil e fatores associados: estudo de base populacional vol.30, pp.9, 2014,
  7. Participation of the Women Covered by Family Physicians in Breast Cancer Screening Program in Kerman, Iran vol.16, pp.11, 2015,
  8. Risk of Breast Cancer in Relation to Reproductive Factors in North-west of Iran, 2013-2014 vol.16, pp.2, 2015,
  9. Predictors of Progress in the Stage of Adoption of Breast Cancer Screening for Korean Women vol.16, pp.7, 2015,
  10. The use of advertising appeals in breast cancer detection messages: a web content analysis pp.1541-0331, 2019,