- Volume 13 Issue 5
DOI QR Code
Who are the Breast Cancer Survivors in Malaysia?
- Ibrahim, Nor Idawaty (Ministry of Health, University of Malaya) ;
- Dahlui, M. (Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya) ;
- Aina, E.N. (Ministry of Health, University of Malaya) ;
- Al-Sadat, N. (Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya)
- Published : 2012.05.30
Introduction: Worldwide, breast cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in women. However, the survival rate varies across regions at averages of 73%and 57% in the developed and developing countries, respectively. Objective: This study aimed to determine the survival rate of breast cancer among the women of Malaysia and characteristics of the survivors. Method: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on secondary data obtained from the Breast Cancer Registry and medical records of breast cancer patients admitted to Hospital Kuala Lumpur from 2005 to 2009. Survival data were validated with National Birth and Death Registry. Statistical analysis applied logistic regression, the Cox proportional hazard model, the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test. Results: A total of 868 women were diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2005 and December 2009, comprising 58%, 25% and 17% Malays, Chinese and Indians, respectively. The overall survival rate was 43.5% (CI 0.573-0.597), with Chinese, Indians and Malays having 5 year survival rates of 48.2% (CI 0.444-0.520), 47.2% (CI 0.432-0.512) and 39.7% (CI 0.373-0.421), respectively (p<0.05). The survival rate was lower as the stages increased, with the late stages were mostly seen among the Malays (46%), followed by Chinese (36%) and Indians (34%). Size of tumor>3.0cm; lymph node involvement, ERPR, and HER 2 status, delayed presentation and involvement of both breasts were among other factors that were associated with poor survival. Conclusions: The overall survival rate of Malaysian women with breast cancer was lower than the western figures with Malays having the lowest because they presented at late stage, after a long duration of symptoms, had larger tumor size, and had more lymph nodes affected. There is an urgent need to conduct studies on why there is delay in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer women in Malaysia.
- Al-Naggar RAM, Isa ZM, Shah SA, et al (2009). Eight year survival among breast cancer Malaysian women from University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 1075-8.
- Banarjee M, George J, Song EY, Roy AHW (2003). Tree-based model for breast cancer prognostication. J Surg Oncol, 83, 167-72. https://doi.org/10.1002/jso.10264
- Campbell JB (2002). Breast cancer-race, ethnicity, and survival: a literature review. Breast cancer research and treatment. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 74, 187-92. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016178415129
- Carter CL, Allen C, HD (1989). Relation of tumour size, lymph node status, and survival in 24,740 breast cancer cases. Cancer, 63, 181-7. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19890101)63:1<181::AID-CNCR2820630129>3.0.CO;2-H
- Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al (2008). Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide (p. Version 1.2 IARC Cancer Base No.10 Lyon).
- Gebauer G, Fehm T, Lang N, Jäger W (2002). Tumour size, axillary lymph node status and steroid receptor expression in breast cancer. Prognostic relevance 5 years after surgery. Breast cancer research and treatment. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 75, 167-73. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019601928290
- Golledge J, Wiggins JE, Callam MJ (2000). Age related variation in the treatment and outcomes of patients with breast carcinoma. Cancer, 88, 369-74. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000115)88:2<369::AID-CNCR18>3.0.CO;2-E
- Gordon NH, Crowe JP, Brumberg DJ, BN (1992). Socioeconomic factors and race in breast cancer recurrence and survival. Am J Epidemiol, 135, 609-18. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116340
- Hawkins RA, Tesdale AL, K M (1996). Prospective evaluation of prognostic factors in operable breast cancer. Br J Cancer, 74, 1469-78. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1996.567
- Hebert JR, Ghumare SS, G P (2006). Stages at diagnosis and relative differences in breast and prostate cancer incidence in India: comparison with the United States. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 7, 547-55.
- Hisham AN, Yip CH (2004). Overview of Breast Cancer in Malaysian Women : Asian journal of surgery / Asian Surgical Association. Asian J Surg, 27, 130-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1015-9584(09)60326-2
- Jatoi I, Becher H, L C (2003). Widening disparity in survival between white and African-American patients with breast carcinoma treated in the US Department of Defense healthcare system. Cancer, 98, 894-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.11604
- Jemal A, Bray F, Ferlay J (2011). Global Cancer Statistics. World, 61, 69-90.
- Knight WA, Livingston RB, Gregory EJ, M W (1977). Estrogen receptor as an independent prognostic factor for early recurrence in bresat cancer. Cancer Res, 37, 4669-71.
- Leong BD, Chuah JA, Kumar VM (2007). Breast cancer in Sabah, Malaysia: a two prospective study. APJCP, 8, 525-9.
- Lim GCC, Rampal S (2008). Cancer Incidence in Peninsular Malaysia, 2003-2005. National Cancer Registry. Kuala Lumpur.
- Lim, Gerard, Yahaya, H (2004). Second Report of the National Cancer Registry. Cancer Incidence in Malaysia 2003. National Cancer Registry, Kuala Lumpur (pp. 1-141).
- May DS, Lee NC, Richardson LC, Giustozzi AG (2000). Mammography and breast cancer detection by race and Hispanic ethnicity: results from a national program (United States). Cancer Causes Control, 11, 697-705. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008900220924
- Mohd Taib NA, Akmal MN, Mohamed I (2011). Improvement in survival of breast cancer patients - trends over two time periods in a single institution in an Asia Pacific country, Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 345-49.
- Mohd Taib NA, Yip CH (2008). Survival analysis of Malaysian women with breast cancer: results from the University of Malaya Medical Centre. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 9, 197-202.
- Ong TA (2003). Short-term survival in breast cancer: the experience of the University of Malaya Medical Centre. Asian journal of surgery. Asian Surg Assoc, 26, 169-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1015-9584(09)60378-X
- Pathy NB, Yip CH, Taib NA, et al (2011). Breast cancer in a multi-ethnic Asian setting: results from the Singapore- Malaysia hospital-based breast cancer registry. Breast, 20, 75-80.
- Potosky AL, Merill RM, Riley GF, et al (1997). Breast Cancer Survival and Treatment in Health Maintenance Organization and Fee for Services settings. J Natl Cancer Inst, 89, 1683-91. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/89.22.1683
- Ragland KE, Selvin S (1991). Black-White differences in stage specific cancer survival: analysis of seven sites. Am J Epidemiology, 133, 672-82. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115942
- Rezaianzadeh A, Peacock J, Reidpath D, et al (2009). Survival analysis of 1148 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Southern Iran. BMC Cancer, 9, 168. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-9-168
- Saez RA, McGuire WL (1989). Prognostic factors in breast cancer. Semin Surg Oncol, 5, 105-10.
- Shavers VL (2002). Racial and ethnic disparities in the receipt of cancer treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst, 94, 334-57. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/94.5.334
- Taib NA, Yip CH, Mohamed I, Ng CJ (2007). Breast cancer in Malaysia: are our women getting the right message? 10 year-experience in a single institution in Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 8, 141-5.
- Tan EY, ONE AUTHOR, ONE AUTHOR, et al (2005). Locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer in a tertiary hospital. Ann Acad Med Singapore, 34, 595-601.
- Older Women Breast Cancer Survivors: Decision Making, Sources of Information and Wellness Activities in Malaysia vol.14, pp.3, 2013, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.2043
- Understanding the Breast Cancer Experience: a Qualitative Study of Malaysian Women vol.14, pp.6, 2013, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.6.3689
- A meta-analysis of the association of glutathione S-transferase P1 gene polymorphism with the susceptibility of breast cancer vol.40, pp.4, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-012-2396-z
- Socio-Demography and Medical History as Predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Survivors vol.16, pp.4, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.4.1479
- Complementary Alternative Medicine Use Amongst Breast Cancer Patients in the Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia vol.16, pp.8, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3125
- Breast Cancer Survival at a Leading Cancer Centre in Malaysia vol.16, pp.18, 2016, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.18.8513
- GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms as predictors of response to chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer: a meta-analysis vol.78, pp.6, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00280-016-3173-9
- Screening Uptake Differences Are Not Implicated in Poorer Breast Cancer Outcomes among Singaporean Malay Women vol.20, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4048/jbc.2017.20.2.183