Evaluation of Energy Digestibility and Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy from Chemical Composition of Different Cottonseed Meal Sources Fed to Growing Pigs

  • Li, J.T. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Li, D.F. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Zang, J.J. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Yang, W.J. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Zhang, W.J. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Zhang, L.Y. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University)
  • Received : 2012.03.02
  • Accepted : 2012.06.07
  • Published : 2012.10.01


The present experiment was conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in growing pigs fed diets containing one of ten cottonseed meals (CSM) collected from different provinces of China and to develop in vitro prediction equations for DE and ME content from chemical composition of the CSM samples. Twelve growing barrows with an initial body weight of $35.2{\pm}1.7$ kg were allotted to two $6{\times}6$ Latin square designs, with six barrows and six periods and six diets for each. A corn-dehulled soybean meal diet was used as the basal diet, and the other ten diets were formulated with corn, dehulled soybean meal and 19.20% CSM. The DE, ME and ATTD of gross energy among different CSM sources varied largely and ranged from 1,856 to 2,730 kcal/kg dry matter (DM), 1,778 to 2,534 kcal/kg DM, and 42.08 to 60.47%, respectively. Several chemical parameters were identified to predict the DE and ME values of CSM, and the accuracy of prediction models were also tested. The best fit equations were: DE, kcal/kg DM = 670.14+31.12 CP+659.15 EE with $R^2$ = 0.82, RSD = 172.02, p<0.05; and ME, kcal/kg DM = 843.98+25.03 CP+673.97 EE with $R^2$ = 0.84, RSD = 144.79, p<0.05. These results indicate that DE, ME values and ATTD of gross energy varied substantially among different CSM sources, and that some prediction equations can be applied to predict DE and ME in CSM with an acceptable accuracy.


  1. Adeola, O. 2001. Digestion and balance techniques in pigs. Page 903 in Swine Nutrition, 2nd ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern,ed. CRC Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  2. AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis, 17 Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Virginia, USA.
  3. Anderson, P. V., B. J. Kerr, T. E. Weber, C. J. Ziemer and G. C. Shurson. 2012. Determination and prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy from chemical analysis of corn co-products fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90:1242-1254.
  4. Anderson-Hafermann, J. C., Y. Zhang and C. M. Parsons. 1993. Effects of processing on the nutritive quality of canola meal. Poult. Sci. 72:326-333.
  5. Ash, M. and E. Dohlman. 2006. Oil crops situation and outlook yearbook. Electronic outlook report from the economic research service. U. S. Department of Agriculture.
  6. Batterham, E. S., L. M. Andersen, D. R. Baigent and R. E. Darnell. 1990. A comparison of the availability and ileal digestibility of lysine in cottonseed and soya-bean meals for grower/finisher pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 64:663-677.
  7. Brown, W. F. and F. M. Pate. 1997. Cottonseed meal or feather meal supplementation of ammoniated tropical grass hay for yearling cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1666-1673.
  8. Cozannet P., Y. Primot, C. Gady, J. P. Metayer, M. Lessire, F. Skiba and J. Noblet. 2010. Energy value of wheat distillers grains with solubles for growing pigs and adult sows. J. Anim. Sci. 88:2382-2392.
  9. Cranston, J. J., J. D. Rivera, M. L. Galyean, M. M. Brashears, J. C. Brooks, C. E. Markham, L. J. McBeth and C. R. Krehbiel. 2006. Effects of feeding whole cottonseed and cottonseed products on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 84:2186-2199.
  10. Eeckhout, W. and M. De Paepe. 1994. Total phosphorus, phytate-phosphorus and phytase activity in plant feedstuffs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 47:19-29.
  11. Fairbairn, S. L., J. F. Patience, H. L. Classen and R. T. Zijlstra. 1999. The energy content of barley fed to growing pigs: characterizing the nature of its variability and developing prediction equations for its estimation. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1502-1512.
  12. Fombad, R. B. and M. J. Bryant. 2004. An evaluation of the use of cottonseed cake in the diet of growing pigs. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 36:295-305.
  13. Gottlob, R. O., J. M. DeRouchey, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, S. S. Dritz, J. L. Nelssen, C. W. Hastad and D. A. Knabe. 2006. Amino acid and energy digestibility of protein sources of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1396-1402.
  14. Hron, R. J., P. J. Wan and M. S. Kuk. 1996. Ethanol vapor deactivation of gossypol in cottonseed meal. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 73:1337-1339.
  15. Husby, F. M. and G. H. Kroening. 1971. Energy value of cottonseed meal for swine. J. Anim. Sci. 33:592-594.
  16. Just, A., H. Jorgensen and J. A. Fernandez. 1984. Prediction of metabolizable energy for pigs on the basis of crude nutrients in the feeds. Livest. Prod. Sci. 11:105-128.
  17. Kim, J. C., B. P. Mullan, J. M. Heo, A. Hernandez and J. R. Pluske. 2009. Variation in digestible energy content of Australian sweet lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) and the development of prediction equations for its estimation. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2565-2573.
  18. Knabe, D. A., D. C. LaRue, E. J. Gregg, G. M. Martinez and T. D. Tanksley. 1989. Apparent digestibility of nitrogen and amino acids in protein feedstuffs by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 67:441-458.
  19. Lea, C. H. and R. S. Hannan. 1949. The effect of activity of water, of pH and of temperature on the primary reaction between casein and glucose. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 3:313-325.
  20. Li, D. F., X. X. Xu, S. Y. Qiao, C. T. Zheng, Y. Chen, X. S. Piao, In K. Han and P. Thacker. 2000. Growth performance of growing-finishing pigs fed diets supplemented with chinese cottonseed meal based on amino acid digestibilities. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:521-527.
  21. Littell, R. C., P. R. Henry and C. B. Ammerman. 1998. Statistical analysis of repeated data using SAS procedures. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1216-1231.
  22. NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirement of pigs. 10th Edition. National Research Council, Academy Press. Washington, DC, USA.
  23. Noblet, J. and J. M. Perez. 1993. Prediction of digestibility of nutrients and energy values of pig diets from chemical analysis. J. Anim. Sci. 71:3389-3398.
  24. Noblet, J. and G. Le Goff. 2001. Effect of dietary fiber on the energy value of feeds for pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 90:35-52.
  25. Olukosi, O. A. and O. Adeola. 2009. Estimation of metabolizable energy content of meat and bone meal for swine. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2590-2599.
  26. Papadopoulos, G., K. Fegeros and E. Ziras. 1987. Evaluation of greek cottonseed meal. 2. Use in rations for fattening pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 18:303-313.
  27. Pons, W. A. and J. D. Guthrie. 1949. Determination of free gossypol in cottonseed materials. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 26:671-676.
  28. Pons, W. A., F. H. Thurber and G. L. Hoffpauir. 1955. Prepress-solvent extraction of cottonseed, processing conditions and characteristics of products. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 32:98-103.
  29. Prawirodigdo, S., N. J. Gannon, R. J. van Barneveld, D. J. Kerton, B. J. Leury and R. Dunshea. 1998. Assessment of apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and nitrogen in cottonseed and soyabean meals fed to pigs determined using ileal dissection under halothane anaesthesia or following carbon dioxide-stunning. Br. J. Nutr. 80:183-191.
  30. Reddy, N. R., C. V. Balakrishnan and D. K. Salunkhe. 1978. Phytate phosphorus and mineral changes during germination and cooking of blackgram (Phaseolus mungo L.) seeds. J. Food Sci. 43:540-542.
  31. Ren, P., Z. P. Zhu, B. Dong, J. J. Zang and L. M. Gong. 2011. Determination of energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs fed corn distillers' dried grains with solubles containing different lipid levels. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 65:303-319.
  32. Robison, W. L. 1931. Cottonseed meal for pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 1931:227-232.
  33. Sauer, W. C. and L. Ozimek. 1986. Digestibility of amino avids in swine: Results and their practical application: A Review. Livest. Prod. Sci. 15:367-387.
  34. SAS. 1999. SAS user's guide: Statistics (Version 8.01 Ed). SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, N. C. USA.
  35. Song, G. L., D. F. Li, X. S. Piao, F. Chi and W. J. Yang. 2003. Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the digestible and metabolizable energy content of high-oil corn varieties and its effects on growth performance of pigs. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 57:297-306.
  36. Stein, H. H., M. L. Gibson, C. Pedersen and M. G. Boersma. 2006. Amino acid and energy digestibilty in ten samples of distillers dried grain with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 84:853-860.
  37. Tanksley, T. D., D. A. Knabe, K. Purser, T. Zebrowska and J. R. Corley. 1981. Apparent digestibily of amino acids and nitrogen in three cottonseed meals and one soybean meal. J. Anim. Sci. 52:769-777.
  38. Tanksley, T. D. 1990. Cottonseed meal. In: Nontraditional Feed Sources for Use in Swine Production (Ed. P. A. Thacker and R. N. Kirkwood). Butterworths, Stoneham, MA. pp. 139-151.
  39. Thiex, N. J., H. Manson, S. Anderson and J. A. Persson. 2002. Determination of crude protein in animal feed, forage, grain, and oilseeds by using block digestion with copper catalyst and steam distillation into boric acid: Collaborative study. J. AOAC Int. 85:309-317.
  40. Thiex, N. J., S. Anderson and B. Gildemeister. 2003. Crude fat, diethyl ester extraction in feed, cereal grains, and forge (Randall/Soxtec/submersion method): Collaborative study. J. AOAC Int. 86:888-898.
  41. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.
  42. Wheeler, E. L. and R. E. Ferrel. 1971. A method for phytic acid determination in wheat and wheat fractions. Cereal Chem. 48:312-315.
  43. Winterholl, S. J., D. L. Lalman, M. D. Hudson and C. L. Goad. 2009. Supplemental energy and extruded-expelled cottonseed meal as a supplemental protein source for beef cows consuming low-quality forage. J. Anim. Sci. 87:3003-3012.

Cited by

  1. Determination and Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy from the Chemical Composition of Chinese Corn Gluten Feed Fed to Finishing Pigs vol.27, pp.6, 2014,
  2. Simultaneous inclusion of sorghum and cottonseed meal or millet in broiler diets: effects on performance and nutrient digestibility vol.10, pp.07, 2016,
  3. Effect of keratinase on ileal amino acid digestibility in five feedstuffs fed to growing pigs vol.31, pp.12, 2018,