- Volume 25 Issue 10
DOI QR Code
Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus
- Lee, Dong-Hoon (Gyenoggi Province Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute) ;
- Lim, Seong-Ryul (Gyenoggi Province Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute) ;
- Ra, Chang-Six (Department of Animal Life System, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
- Kim, Jeong-Dae (Department of Animal Life System, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University)
- Received : 2012.04.09
- Accepted : 2012.06.11
- Published : 2012.10.01
A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE) on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05). Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p<0.05) higher in GE than in control. However, total whole body free amino acids were significantly lower in GE than in control (p<0.05). GE group showed higher EPA (C22:6n3) and DHA (C22:5n3) in their whole body than the other group (p<0.05). In the second experiment, the effects of dietary garlic extracts on blood plasma changes were investigated using 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon averaging 56.5 g. Fish were randomly allotted to each of 2 tanks (300 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the rate of 2% of body weight per day for 23 d. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was taken from the tail vein (n = 5, per group) at 1, 12, and 24 h after feeding, respectively. Blood plasma glucose, insulin and the other serological characteristics were also measured to assess postprandial status of the fish. Plasma glucose concentrations (mg/dl) between two groups (GE vs control) were significantly (p< 0.05) different at 1 (50.8 vs 62.4) and 24 h (57.6 vs 73.6) after feeding, respectively, while no significant difference (p>0.05) were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0). Plasma insulin concentrations (
Garlic Extracts;Sterlet Sturgeon;Fatty Acids;Amino Acids;Free Amino Acids;Insulin;Glucose
- Abd-El-Hamid, A. M., F. F. Khalil, M. I. EL-Barbery, V. H. Zaki and H. S. Husien. 2002. Feeding Nile tilapia on biogen to detoxify aflatoxin diet. In: Annual Scientific Conference of Animal and Fish Production 1. Proceedings Mansoura University. pp. 207-230.
- Agarwal, K. C. 1996. Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents. Med. Res. Rev. 16:111-124. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-1128(199601)16:1<111::AID-MED4>3.0.CO;2-5
- Ahmed, R. S. and S. B. Sharma. 1997. Biochemical studies on combined effects of garlic Allium sativum (Linn) and ginger Zingiber officinale (Rose) in albino rats. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 35:841-843.
- Al-Salahy, M. B., A. A. Hassanien., S. H. M. Ahmed and S. Y. Hussein. 1994. Metabolic effect of insulin on carbohydrate and free amino acid contents in the Nile fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Bull. Fac. Assiut.Univ. 23(2-E):51-66.
- Al-Salahy, M. B. 2002. Some physiological studies on the effect of onion and garlic juices on the fish, Clarias lazera. Fish. Physiol. Biochem. 27:129-142. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:FISH.0000021913.60189.76
- Al-Salahy, M. B. 2003. Some metabolic effects of glucose and chlorpropamide administration on the liver and white muscle in Clarias lazera. J. Egypt. Ger. Soc. Zool. 42A:57-75.
- Al-Salahy, M. B. and A. A. B. Mahmoud. 2003. Metabolic and histological studies on the effect of garlic administration on the carnivorous fish Chrysichthys auratus. Egypt. J. Biol. 5:94-107.
- AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis. 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington, Virginia, USA.
- Ao, X., J. S. Yoo, J. H. Lee, H. D. Jang, J. P. Wang, T. X. Zhou and I. H. Kim. 2010. Effects of fermented garlic powder on production performance, egg quality, blood profiles and fatty acids composition of egg yolk in laying hens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23:786-791. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2010.90543
- Augusti, K. T. 1996. Therapeutic values of onion (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L). Indian. J. Exp. Biol. 34:634-640.
- Augusti, K. T. and C. G. Sheela. 1996. Antiperoxide effect of s-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, an insulin secretagogue, in diabetic rats. Experientia 52:115-119. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01923354
- Bampidis, V. A., V. Christodoulou, E. Christaki, P. Florou-Paneri and A. B. Spais. 2005. Effect of dietary garlic bulb and garlic husk supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics of growing lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 121:273-283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.02.003
- Bordia, A., S. K. Verma and K. C. Srivastava. 1996. Effect of garlic on platelet aggregation in humans: A study in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease. Prostoglandins Leukot.Essent. Fatty Acids 55:201-205. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0952-3278(96)90099-X
- Brown, B. A. 1980. Routine hematology procedures. In Hematology: Principles and Procedures. pp. 71-112.
- Carneiro, N. M. and A. D. Amaral. 1983. Effect of insulin and glucagon on plasma glucose levels and glycogen contents in organs of the freshwater teleost, Pimelodus maculates. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 49:115-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-6480(83)90014-X
- Carter, C. G., D. F. Houlihan, B. Buchanan and A. I. Mitchell. 1993. Protein-nitrogen flux and protein growth efficiency of individual Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.). Fish Physiol. Biochem. 12:305-315. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00004415
- Chang, M. W. and M. Johnson. 1980. Effect of garlic on carbohydrate metabolism and lipid synthesis in rats. J. Nutr. 110:931-936.
- Chi, M. S., E. T. Koh and T. J. Steward. 1982. Effects of garlic on lipid metabolism in rats fed cholesterol or lard. J. Nutr. 112:241-248.
- Citarasu, T., M. M. Babu, S. M. J. Punitha, K. Venket Ramalingam and M. P. Marian. 2001. Control of pathogenic bacteria using herbal biomedicinal products in the larviculture system of Penaeus monodon. International Conference on Advanced Technologies in Fisheries and Marine Sciences, MS University, India. pp. 104.
- Citarasu, T., R. R. Sekar, M. M. Babu and M. P. Marian. 2002. Developing Artemia enriched herbal diet for producing quality larvae in Penaeus monodon. Asian. Fish. Sci. 15:21-32.
- Decker, E. A., A. D. Crum, S. D. Mims and J. H. Tidwell. 1991. Processing yield and composition of paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), a potential aquaculture species. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39:686-688. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00004a012
- Diab, A. S., G. O. EL-NAGAR and Y. M. Abd-El-Hady. 2002. Evaluation of Nigella sativa L (black seeds; baraka), Allium sativum (garlic) and BIOGEN as feed additives on growth performance and immunostimulants of O. niloticus fingerlings. Suez Canal Vet. Med. J. pp.745-775.
- Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple 'F'tests. Biometrics 11:1-42. https://doi.org/10.2307/3001478
- EL-Shatter, M. A., M. H. Sobbhy and J. G. Shehab. 1997. Some pharmacological and pathological studies on Allium sativum (garlic). Appl. Vet. Med. J. 36:264-283.
- Fauconneau, B. and M. Arnal. 1985. In vivo protein synthesis in different tissues and the wholebody of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri R.). Influence of environmental temperature. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 82:179-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(85)90723-6
- Fernandez-Navarro, M., J. Peragon, F. Esteban, M. Higuera and J. A. Lupianez. 2006. Maslinic acid as a feed additive to stimulate growth and hepatic protein-turnover rates in rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part C. 144:130-140.
- Foushee, D. B., J. Ruffin and U. Banerjee. 1982. Garlic as a natural agent for the treatment of hypertension: a preliminary report. Cytobios 34:145-152.
- Greene, D. H. S. and D. P. Selivonchick. 1987. Lipid metabolism in fish. Prog. Lipid Res. 26:53-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-7827(87)90008-7
- Harikrishnan, R., M. Nisha Rani and C. Balasundaram. 2003. Hematological and biochemical parameters in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, following herbal treatment for Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Aquaculture 221:41-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00023-1
- Harlver, J. E. and R. W. Hardy. 2002. Fish nutrition. 3rd edition. Academic press. San Diego, California, pp. 763-765.
- Hochleithner, M. and J. Gessner. 1999. The sturgeon and paddlefish (Acipenseriformes) of the world. Biology and Aquaculture. AquaTech publications. p. 165.
- Ince, B. W. and A. Thorpe. 1974. Effects of insulin and of metabolite loading on blood metabolites in the European silver eel, Anguilla anguilla L. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 23:460-471. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-6480(74)90044-6
- Inui, Y., S. Arai and M. Yokote. 1975. Gluconeogenesis in the eel. VI. Effects of hepatectomy, alloxan and mammalian insulin on the behavior of plasma amino acids. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 41:1105-1111. https://doi.org/10.2331/suisan.41.1105
- Jackim, E. and G. LaRoche. 1973. Protein synthesis in Fundulus heteroclitus muscle. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 44:851-866. https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(73)90148-5
- Jain, R. C., C. R. Vyas and O. P. Mahatma. 1973. Hypoglycemic action of onion and garlic. Lancet 2:1491.
- Jayaprakas, V. and J. Eupharsia. 1996. Growth performance of Labeo rohita (Ham.) Livol (IHF-1000), an herbal product. Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad. 63:1-10.
- Kasuga, A., M. Ushijima, N. Morihara, Y. Itakura and Y. Nakata. 1999. Effect of aged garlic (AGE) on hyperglycemia induced by immobilization stress in mice. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 114:191-197. https://doi.org/10.1254/fpj.114.191
- Knapp, E. and W. Wieser. 1981. Effect of temperature and food on the free aminoacids in tissue of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophtalmus L.). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 68:187-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(81)90340-6
- Konjufca, V. H., G. M. Pesti and R. I. Bakalli. 1997. Modulation of cholesterol levels in broilers meat by dietary garlic and copper. Poult. Sci. 76:1264-1271. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.9.1264
- Krzynowek, J. and J. Murphy. 1987. Prozimate composition, energy, fatty acid, sodium and cholesterol content finfish, shellfish, and their product. National Oceanic Atmosphere Administration Technical Report. 55:1-48.
- Kyo, E., N. Uda, A. Suzuki, M. Kakimoto, M. Ushijima, S. Kasuga and Y. Itakura. 1998. Immunomodulation and antitumor activities of aged garlic extract. Phtomedicine 5:259-267. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0944-7113(98)80064-0
- Lee, D. H., S. R. Lim, J. G. Han, S. Y. Hong, J. S. Choi, S. W. Lee, K. H. Kim and J. D. Kim. 2008. Effect of dietary garlic extracts on growth, feed utilization and whole body fatty acid composition of juvenile sterlet sturgeon. International symposium on fish nutrition and feeding. FXIII ISFNF. p. 203.
- Lee, D. H., C. S. Ra, Y. H. Song, K. I. Sung and J. D. Kim. 2012. Effect of dietary garlic extracts on growth, feed utilization and whole body composition of juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 25:577-583. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2012.12012
- Lotspeich, W. D. and J. B. Shelton. 1949. The Role of insulin in the metabolism of amino acids. J. Biol. Chem. 179:175-180.
- Macmahon, F. G. and R. Vargus. 1993. Can garlic lower blood pressure. A pilot study. Pharmacotherapy 13:406-407.
- Metcalfe, L. D., A. A. Schmitz and J. R. Pelka. 1996. Rapid preparation of fatty acid esters from lipids for gas chromatographic analysis. Anal. Chem. 38:514-515.
- Metwally, M. A. A. 2009. Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on some antioxidant activities in Tilapia Nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus). World J. Fish. Marine Sci. 1:56-64.
- Mims, S. D., A. Lazur, W. L. Shelton, B. Gomelsky and F. Chapman. 2000. Species profile. Production of sturgeon. Southern regional Aquaculture Center. SRAC Fact Sheet, Publication. No. 7200.
- Ottolenghi, C., A. C. Puviani, A. Baruffaldi and L. Bringhenti. 1982. "In vivo" Effect of insulin on carbohydrate of catfish, Ictalurus malas. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 72:32-41.
- Pigott, G. M. 1989. The need to improve omega-3 content of cultured fish. World Aquaculture Magazine 20:63-68.
- Preuss, H. G., D. Clouatre, A. Mohamadi and S. T. Jarrell. 2001. Wild garlic has a greater effect that regular garlic on blood pressure and blood chemistries of rats. Int. Urol. Nephrol. 32:525-530. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014417526290
- Rashatuar, S. S. and R. Ilyas. 1983. Effect of chronic herbicide intoxication on in vivo activities of certain enzymes in the liver of freshwater fish. Nemachelius denisonii. Toxicol. Lett. 16:249-252. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4274(83)90184-4
- Rusakov, Y., S. Moriyama, V. M. Bondareva, A. P. Kolychev, Y. Amemiya, A. Yasuda and H. Kawauchi. 1998. Isolation and characterization of insulin in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser guldenstaedti). J. Pept. Res. 51:395-400.
- Sahu, S. 2004. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts on fish microbial pathogens. MSc. Diss. CIFA. Kausalyaganga. Bhubaneswar. p. 237.
- Sahu, S., B. K. Das, B. K. Mishra, J. Pradhan and N. Sarangi. 2007. Effect of Allium sativum on the immunity and survival of Labeo rohita infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 23:80-86. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00785.x
- Salah El-Deen, M. and W. A. Rogers. 1993. Changes in total protein and transaminase activities of grass carp exposed to diquat. J. Aquat. Anim. Health 5:280-286. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8667(1993)005<0280:CITPAT>2.3.CO;2
- Shalaby, A. M., Y. M. Khattab and A. M. Abdel rahman. 2006. Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. 12:172-201.
- Sheela, C. G. and K. T. Augusti. 1992. Antidiabetic effects of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide isolated from garlic, Allium sativum. Indian. J. Exp. Biol. 30:523-526.
Simopoulos, A. P. 1989. Summary of the NATO advanced research workshop on dietary
$\omega$3 and $\omega$6 fatty acids: Biological Effects and Nutritional Essentiality. J. Nutr. 119:521-528.
- Sivaram, V., M. M. Babu, T. Citarasu, G. Immanuel, S. Murugadass and M. P. Marian. 2004. Growth and immune response of juvenile greasy groupers (Epinephelus tauvina) fed with herbal antibacterial active principle supplemented diets against Vibrio harveyi infections. Aquaculture 237:9-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.03.014
- SPSS. Inc., 1999. SPSS Base 10.0 for Windows User's Guide. SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA.
- Steiner, D. F. and P. E. Oyer. 1967. The biosynthesis of in sulin and probable precursor of in sulin by a huma islet cell adenoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 57:473-480. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.57.2.473
- Stimmelmayr, R., K. L. Drew and R. G. White. 2002. Serum insulin, glucose and lactate concentrations during 18-h fast in female reindeer. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part B. 133:201-208.
- Tantikitti, C. and B. E. March. 1995. Dinamics of plama free amino acid in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under variety of dietary conditions. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 14:179-194. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00004309
- Tashima, L. and G. F. Cahill. 1968. Effects of Insulin the toadfish. Opsanus tau. Gen Comp. Endocrinol. 11:262-271. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-6480(68)90081-6
- Tatara, M. R., E. Sliwa, K. Dudek, A. Gawron and T. Piersiak. 2008. Aged garlic extract and allicin improve performance and gastrointestinal tract development of piglets reared in artificial sow. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 15:63-69.
- Xu, R., S. S. O. Hung and J. B. German. 1993. White sturgeon tissue fatty acid compositions. J. Nutr. 123:1685-1692.
- Yeh, Y. Y. and S. M. Yeh. 1994. Garlic reduces plasma lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol and triacylglycerol synthesis. Lipids 29:189-193. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02536728
- Yeh, Y. Y. and L. Liu. 2001. Cholesterol-Lowering effect of garlic extracts and or ganosulfur compounds: Human and animal studies. J. Nutr. 131:989s-993s.
- Zimmerman, D. W. and B. D. Zumbo. 1993. Relative power of the Wilcoxon test, the Friedman test, and repeated-measures ANOVA on ranks. J. Exp. Educ. 62:75-86. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.1993.9943832
- Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate (MgHPO<sub>4</sub>) as an Alternative Phosphorus Source on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (<i>Silurus asotus</i>) vol.27, pp.8, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2014.14079
- Survival Rate and Biochemical Parameters in Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) Larvae Fed Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extract vol.05, pp.01, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4236/ajmb.2015.51002
- and whey powder in diet of pigs on physicochemical characteristics and oxidative stability of pork pp.1828-051X, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2017.1326856
- Soybean isoflavones improve the health benefits, flavour quality indicators and physical properties of grass carp (Ctenopharygodon idella) vol.14, pp.1, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209570