Phenolic Composition, Fermentation Profile, Protozoa Population and Methane Production from Sheanut (Butryospermum Parkii) Byproducts In vitro

  • Bhatta, Raghavendra (Energy Metabolism Laboratory, National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology) ;
  • Mani, Saravanan (Energy Metabolism Laboratory, National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology) ;
  • Baruah, Luna (Energy Metabolism Laboratory, National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology) ;
  • Sampath, K.T. (Energy Metabolism Laboratory, National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology)
  • Received : 2012.04.26
  • Accepted : 2012.06.25
  • Published : 2012.10.01


Sheanut cake (SNC), expeller (SNE) and solvent extractions (SNSE) samples were evaluated to determine their suitability in animal feeding. The CP content was highest in SNSE (16.2%) followed by SNE (14.7%) and SNC (11.6%). However, metabolizable energy (ME, MJ/kg) was maximum in SNC (8.2) followed by SNE (7.9) and SNSE (7.0). The tannin phenol content was about 7.0 per cent and mostly in the form of hydrolyzable tannin (HT), whereas condensed tannin (CT) was less than one per cent. The in vitro gas production profiles indicated similar y max (maximum potential of gas production) among the 3 by-products. However, the rate of degradation (k) was maximum in SNC followed by SNE and SNSE. The $t^{1/2}$ (time taken for reaching half asymptote) was lowest in SNC (14.4 h) followed by SNE (18.7 h) and SNSE (21.9 h). The increment in the in vitro gas volume (ml/200 mg DM) with PEG (polyethylene glycol)-6000 (as a tannin binder) addition was 12.0 in SNC, 9.6 in SNE and 11.0 in SNSE, respectively. The highest ratio of $CH_4$ (ml) reduction per ml of the total gas, an indicator of the potential of tannin, was recorded in SNE (0.482) followed by SNC (0.301) and SNSE (0.261). There was significant (p<0.05) reduction in entodinia population and total protozoa population. Differential protozoa counts revealed that Entodinia populations increased to a greater extent than Holotricha when PEG was added. This is the first report on the antimethanogenic property of sheanut byproducts. It could be concluded that all the three forms of SN byproducts are medium source of protein and energy for ruminants. There is a great potential for SN by-products to be incorporated in ruminant feeding not only as a source of energy and protein, but also to protect the protein from rumen degradation and suppress enteric methanogenesis.


Sheanut Meal;In vitro;Tannin;Phenolics;Methane;Protozoa


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