- Volume 25 Issue 10
DOI QR Code
Comparison of Growth Performance of Antibiotic-free Yorkshire Crossbreds Sired by Berkshire, Large Black, and Tamworth Breeds Raised in Hoop Structures
- Whitley, N. (North Carolina A&T State University) ;
- Morrow, W.E.M. (North Carolina State University) ;
- See, M.T. (North Carolina State University) ;
- Oh, S.H. (North Carolina A&T State University)
- 투고 : 2012.03.27
- 심사 : 2012.07.01
- 발행 : 2012.10.01
The objective of this study was to compare body weight, ADG, and feed:gain ratio of antibiotic-free pigs from Yorkshire dams and sired by Yorkshire (YY), Berkshire (BY), Large Black (LBY) or Tamworth (TY) boars. All the crossbred pigs in each of three trials were raised as one group from weaning to finishing in the same deep-bedded hoop, providing a comfortable environment for the animals which allowed rooting and other natural behaviors. Birth, weaning and litter weights were measured and recorded. From approximately 50 kg to market weight (125 kg), feed intake and body weights were recorded manually (body weight) or using a FIRE (Feed Intake Recording Equipment, Osborne Industries Inc. Osborne, Kansas) system with eight individual feeding stations. Feed intake data for 106 finishing pigs between 140 and 210 d of age and the resulting weights and feed conversion ratios were analyzed by breed type. Least square means for body weights (birth, weaning and to 240 d) were estimated with Proc Mixed in SAS 9.2 for fixed effects such as crossbreed and days of age within the sire breed. The differences within fixed effects were compared using least significant differences with DIFF option. Individual birth weights and weaning weights were influenced by sire breed (p<0.05). For birth weight, BY pigs were the lightest, TY and YY pigs were the heaviest but similar to each other and LBY pigs were intermediate. For weaning weights, BY and LBY pigs were heavier than TY and YY pigs. However, litter birth and weaning weights were not influenced by sire breed, and average daily gain was also not significantly different among breed types. Tamworth sired pigs had lower overall body weight gain, and feed conversion was lower in TY and YY groups than BY and LBY groups (p<0.05), however, number of observations was somewhat limited for feed conversion and for Tamworth pigs. Overall, no convincing differences among breed types were noted for this study, but growth performance in the outdoor environment was satisfactory.
- Aziz, N. 2004. Manipulating pork quality through production and pre-slaughter handling. Adv. Pork Prod. 15:245-251.
- Casey, D. S. and J. C. M. Dekkers. 2001. Dealing with errors in data from electronic swine feeders. http://www.extension. iastate.edu/ipic/reports/01swinereports/Breedphys01.html
- Coffey, M. T., B. G. Diggs, D. L. Handlin, D. A. Knabe, C. V. Maxwell, Jr., P. R. Noland, T. J. Prince and G. L. Gromwell. 1994. Effects of dietary energy during gestation and lactation on reproductive performance of sows: A cooperative study. J. Anim. Sci. 72:4-9.
- Cook, R. D. and S. Weisberg. 1982. Residuals and Influence in Regression. London: Chapman and Hall.
- Fahmy, M. H. and W. B. Holtman. 1977. Crossbreeding swine in Canada. World review of animal production, vol XIII, 4:9-30.
- Gegner, L. 2001. Considerations in organic hog production. ATTRA's Organic Matters Series.
- Gegner, L. 2004. Hog production alternatives. ATTRA's Organic Matters Series.
- Hasty, J. L., E. van Heugten, M. T. See and D. K. Larick. 2002. Effect of vitamin E on improving fresh pork quality in Berkshire-sired and Hampshire-sired pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80:3230-3237.
- Honeyman, M. S. 2005. Extensive bedded indoor and outdoor pig production systems in USA: current trends and effects on animal care and product quality. Livest. Prod. Sci. 94:15-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.11.029
- Honeyman, M. S. and J. D. Harmon. 2003. Performance of finishing pigs in hoop structures and confinement during winter and summer. J. Anim. Sci. 81:1663-1670.
- Honeyman, M. S., R. S. Pirog, G. H. Huber, P. J. Lammers and J. R. Hermann. 2006. The United States pork niche market phenomenon. J. Anim. Sci. 84:2269-2275. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2005-680
- Kleinbeck, S. N. and J. J. McGlone. 1999. Intensive indoor versus outdoor swine production systems: Genotype and supplemental iron effects on blood hemoglobin and selected immune measures in young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2384-2390.
- Lohmann, U., R. Sausen, L. Bengtsson, U. Cubasch, J. Perlwitz, and E. Roeckner. 1993. The Koppen climate classification as a diagnostic tool for general circulation models. Clim. Res. 3:177-193. https://doi.org/10.3354/cr003177
- McPhee, H. C. 1931. Swine Inbreeding at the United States Department of Agriculture - A Progress Report. J. Anim. Sci. 1:131-134.
- Quijandria, B. Jr. and O. W. Robison. 1971. Body weight and backfat deposition in swine: Curves and Correction Factors. J. Anim. Sci. 33:911-918.
- Suzuki, K., T. Shibata, H. Kadowaki, H. Abe and T. Toyoshima. 2003. Meat quality comparison of Berkshire, Duroc and crossbred pigs sired by Berkshire and Duroc. Meat Sci. 64:35-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00134-1
- Talbott, C., T. See, M. Ahmedna, H. Fennell, G. Gunthorp and P. Willis. 2003. Potential for small-scale farmers to produce niche market pork using alternative diets, breeds and rearing environments: Observations from North Carolina. Ren. Ag. Food Sys. 19:135-140.
- Taylor, J. M. and L. N. Hazel. 1955. The Growth curve of pigs between 134 and 174 days of age. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1133-1139.
- Thornton, K. 1990. Outdoor pig production. Farming Press, Ipswich, UK.
- Winters, L. M., R. E. Comstock and D. L. Dailey. 1943. The development of an inbred line of swine (Minn. No. 1) from a Crossbred Foundation. J. Anim. Sci. 2:129-137.
- Wood, J. D., G. R. Nute, R. I. Richardson, F. M. Whittington, O. Southwood, G. Plastow, R. Mansbridge, N. da Costa and K. C. Chang. 2004. Effects of breed, diet and muscle on fat deposition and eating quality in pigs. Meat Sci. 67:651-667. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.01.007
- Young, R. J. and A. B. Lawrence. 1994. Feeding behaviour of pigs in groups monitored by a computerized feeding system. Anim. Prod. 58:145-152. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100007182
- Research trends in outdoor pig production — A review vol.30, pp.9, 2017, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0330
- Comparison of growth performance of Berkshire purebreds and crossbreds sired by Hereford and Tamworth breeds raised in alternative production system vol.30, pp.9, 2017, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0987