Influences of Phytoncide Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Profiles, Diarrhea Scores and Fecal Microflora Shedding in Weaning Pigs

  • Zhang, S. (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Jung, J.H. (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, H.S. (Phylus Co. Ltd.) ;
  • Kim, B.Y. (Phylus Co. Ltd.) ;
  • Kim, In-Ho (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University)
  • Received : 2012.03.30
  • Accepted : 2012.05.29
  • Published : 2012.09.01


A total of 140 weaning pigs ((Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire)${\times}$Duroc, BW = $6.47{\pm}0.86$ kg) were used in a 5-wk growth trail to determine the effects of phytoncide supplementation on growth performance, nutrient apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), blood profiles, diarrhea scores and fecal microflora shedding. Pigs were assigned randomly by BW into 5 treatments, dietary treatments were: i) NC, basal diet; ii) PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii) EO, NC+0.1% essential oil; iv) PP, NC+0.2% PP (phytoncide with 2% citric acid), and v) PA, NC+0.2% PA (phytoncide). Each treatment had 7 replicate pens with 4 pigs per pen. All pigs were housed in pens with a self-feeder and nipple drinker to allow ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experimental period. During 0 to 2 wks, supplementation with essential oil and PA decreased (p<0.05) G/F compared with the other treatments. During 2 to 5 wks, supplementation with PA led to a higher (p<0.05) G/F than the other treatments. At 2 wk, ATTD of dry matter (DM) and gross energy (GE) in EO treatment were decreased (p<0.05) compared with NC treatment. Dietary PC treatment improved (p<0.05) ATTD of DM and E compared with the CON group, and PA and PP treatments showed a higher (p<0.05) ATTD of E than that in NC treatment. Pigs fed phytoncide (PA and PP) had a greater (p<0.05) ATTD of DM than those of NC and EO treatments at 5 wk. Moreover, supplementation with phytoncide elevated (p<0.05) the concentration of immunoglobulin (IgG) in blood at 2 wk. The inclusion of EO, PP and PA treatments showed a greater (p<0.05) amount of fecal Lactobacillus compared with CON group. However, no difference (p>0.05) was observed in diarrhea scores among treatments. In conclusion, phytoncide can elevate feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, and improve the fecal Lactobacillus counts in weaning pigs. Our results indicated that the phytoncide could be used as a good antibiotics alternative in weaning pigs.


Blood Profiles;Growth Performance;Nutrient Digestibility;Phytoncide;Phytogenic Feed Additives;Weaning Pigs


  1. Abe, T., M. Hisama, S. Tanimoto, H. Shibayama, Y. Mihara and M. Nomura. 2008. Antioxidant effects and antimicrobial activites of phytoncide. Biocontrol Sci. 13:23-27.
  2. AOAC. 1995. Association of official analytical chemists, Official Method of Analysis. 16th.
  3. Bailey, M., K. Haverson, C. Inman, C. Harris, P. Jones, G. Corfield, B. Miller and C. Stokes. 2005. The development of the mucosal immune system pre- and post-weaning: balancing regulatory and effector function. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 64:451-457.
  4. Dale, P., N. Irena, D. Vaidilute and B. Vincas. 2010. Korean pine defoliator Bupalus piniaria L. (Lepidopter Geometridae) and its entomopathogenic fungi. Ekologija. 56:34-40
  5. de Vrese, M. and P. R. Marteau. 2007. Probiotics and prebiotics: effects on diarrhea. J. Nutr. 137:803-811.
  6. Freitag, M., H. U. Hensche, H. Schulte-Sienbeck and B. Reichelt. 1998. Kritische Betrachtung des Einsatzes von Leistungsfo rderern in der Tiererna hrung. Forschungsbericht des Fachbereichs Agrarwirtschaft Soest. Universita t-Gesamthochschule, Paderborn, Germany.
  7. Hong, J. W., I. H. Kim, O. S. Kwon, B. J. Min, W. B. Lee and K. S. Shon. 2004. Influences of plant extract supplementation on performance and blood characteristics in weaned pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:374-378.
  8. Huang, C. W., T. T. Lee, Y. C. Shih and B. Yu. 2011. Effects of dietary supplementation of Chinese medicinal herbs on polymorphonuclear neutrophil immune activity and small intestinal morphology in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 96:285-294.
  9. Cho, J. H., Y. J. Chen, B. J. Min, H. J. Kim, O. S. Kwon, K. S. Shon, I. H. Kim, S. J. Kim and A. Asamer. 2006. Effects of essential oils supplementation on growth performance, IgG concentration and fecal noxious gas concentration of weaned pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:80-85.
  10. Janczyk, P., R. Pieper, V. Urubs churov, K. R. Wendler and W. B. Souffran. 2004. Investigations on the effects of dietary essential oils and different husbandry conditions on the gut ecology in piglets after weaning. Int. J. Microbiol. 1-8.
  11. Hong, J. C., S. Tobias, A. Ahmed and T. F. Lien. 2012. Effects of supplemental essential oil on growth performance, lipid metabolites and immunity, intestinal characteristics, microbiota and carcass traits in broilers. Livest. Sci. 144:253-262.
  12. Jobgen, W. S., S. K. Fried, W. J. Fu, C. J. Meininger and G. Wu. 2006. Regulatory role for the arginine-nitric oxide pathway in energy-substrate metabolism. J. Nutr. Biochem. 17:571-588.
  13. Jugl-Chizzola, M., E. Ungerhofer, C. Gabler, W. Hagmuller, R. Chiz-zola, K. Zitterl-Eglseer and C. Franz. 2006. Testing of the palatability of Thymus vulgaris L. and Origanum vulgare L. as flavouring feed additive for weaner pigs on the basis of a choice experiment. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 119: 238-243.
  14. Koedam, A. 1977. Antimikrobielle Wirksamkeit a herischer O le: Eine Literaturarbeit 1960-1976. Riechstoffe, Aromen, Kosmetika 27:36-41.
  15. Kong, X. F., G. Y. Wu, Y. P. Liao, Z. P. Hou, H. J. Liu, F. G. Yin, T. J. Li, R. L. Huang, Y. M. Zhang, D. Deng, P. Kang, R. X. Wang, Z. Y. Tang, C. B. Yang, Z. Y. Deng, H. Xiong, W. Y. Chu, Z. Ruan, M. Y. Xie and Y. L. Yin. 2007. Effects of Chinese herbal ultra-fine powder as a dietary additive on growth performance, serum metabolites and intestinal health in early-weaned piglets. Livest. Sci. 108:272-275.
  16. Konstantinov, S. R., C. F. Favier, W. Y. Zhu, B. A. Williams, J. Klüss, W. B. N. Souffrant, W. M. de Vos, A. D. L. Akkermans and H. Smidt. 2004b. Microbial diversity studies of the porcine gastrointestinal ecosystem during weaning transition. Anim. Res. 53:317-324.
  17. Li, S. Y., Y. J. Rub, M. Liu, B. Xu, A. Péron and X. G. Shi. 2012. The effect of essential oils on performance, immunity and gut microbial population in weaner pigs. Livest. Sci. 145:119-123.
  18. Manzanilla, E. G., J. F. Perez, M. Martin, C. Kamel, F. Baucells and J. Gasa. 2004. Effect of plant extracts and formic acid on the intestinal equilibriumof early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 3210-3218.
  19. Namkung, H., M. Li, J. Gong, H. Yu, M. Cottrill and C. F. M. de Lange. 2004. Impact of feeding blends of organic acids and herbal extracts on growth performance, gut microbiota and digestive function in newly weaned pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 84:697-740.
  20. NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine. 10th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  21. Qing, L., A. Nakadai, H. Matsushima, Y. Miyazaki, A. M. Krensky, T. Kawada and K. Morimoto. 2006. Phytoncide (wood essential oils) induce human natural killer cell activity. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 28:319-333.
  22. SAS. 1996. SAS user's guide: statistics. Version 7.0. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA.
  23. Schone, F., A. Vetter, H. Hartung, H. Bergmann, A. Biertumpfel, G. Richter, S. Muller and G. Breitschuh. 2006. Effects of essential oils from fennel (Foeniculi aetheroleum) and caraway (Carvi aetheroleum) in pigs. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (Berl). 90: 500-510.
  24. Sehm, J., H. Lindermayer, C. Dummer, D.Treutter and M. W. Pfaffl. 2007. The influence of polyphenol rich apple pomace or red-wine pomace diet on the gut morphology in weaning piglets. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 91:289-296.
  25. Sherman, D. M., S. D. Acres, P. L. Sadowski, J. A. Springer, B. Bray, T. J. L. Raybould and C. C. Muscoplat. 1983. Protection of calves against fatal enteric colibacillosis by orally administered Escherichia coli K99-specific monoclonal antibody. Infect. Immun. 42:653-658.
  26. Stokes, C. R., M. Bailey, K. Haverson, C. Harris, P. Jones, C. Inman, S. Pie, I. P. Oswald, B. A. Williams, A. D. L. Akkermans, E. Sowa, H. J. Rothkotter and B. G. Miller. 2004. Postnatal development of intestinal immune system in piglets: implications for the process of weaning. Anim. Res. 53:325-334.
  27. Tiihonen, K., H. Kettunen, M. H. L. Bento, M. Saarinen, S. Lahtinen, A. C. Ouwehand, H. Schulze and N. Rautonen. 2010. The effect of feeding essential oils on broiler performance and gut microbiota. Br. Poult. Sci. 51:381-392.
  28. Visek, W. J. 1978. The mode of growth promotion by antibiotics. J. Anim. Sci. 46:1447-1469.
  29. Whittemore, C. T., J. K. Miller and P. G. Mantle. 1977. Further studies concerning the toxicity of ingested ergot sclerotia (Claviceps purpurea) to young and growing pigs. Res. Vet. Sci. 22:146-150.
  30. Windisch, W., K. Schedle, C. Plitzner and A. Kroismayr. 2007. Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. J. Anim. Sci. 86:40-48.
  31. Yan, L., J. P. Wang, H. J. Kim, Q. W. Meng, X. Ao, S. M. Hong and I. H. Kim. 2010. Influence of essential oil supplementation and diets with different nutrient densities on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality and faecal noxious gas content in grower-finisher pigs. Livest. Sci. 123:115-120.
  32. Zhu, W. Y., B. A. Williams and A. Akkermans. 2000. Development of the microbial community in weaning piglets. Reprod. Nutr. Develop. 40:180-186.

Cited by

  1. Dietary Phytoncide Supplementation Improved Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Finishing Pigs vol.29, pp.9, 2015,
  2. Effects of fenugreek seed extract supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea scores, blood profiles, faecal microflora and faecal noxious gas emission in weanling piglets vol.100, pp.6, 2016,
  3. Natural environments, nature relatedness and the ecological theater: connecting satellites and sequencing to shinrin-yoku vol.35, pp.1, 2016,
  4. Efficacy of phytogenic feed additive on performance, production and health status of monogastric animals – a review vol.0, pp.0, 2017,
  5. Enrichment of Animal Diets with Essential Oils—A Great Perspective on Improving Animal Performance and Quality Characteristics of the Derived Products vol.4, pp.2, 2017,
  6. Effects of Herbiotic FS supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, and faecal scores in weanling pigs vol.46, pp.1, 2018,
  7. Effects of dietary supplemental phytoncide instead of zinc oxide on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, and faecal microflora in growing pigs pp.09312439, 2018,