DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Probiotic and Prebiotic on Average Daily Gain, Fecal Shedding of Escherichia Coli, and Immune System Status in Newborn Female Calves

  • Roodposhti, Pezhman Mohamadi (Department of Animal Science, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University) ;
  • Dabiri, Najafgholi (Department of Animal Science, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University)
  • Received : 2011.08.29
  • Accepted : 2011.10.19
  • Published : 2012.09.01

Abstract

Thirty two Holstein female calves (initial body weight = $40{\pm}3.0$ kg) were used to investigate the effects of probiotic and prebiotic on average daily gain (ADG), fecal E. coli count, white blood cell count, plasma IgG1 level and cell-mediated immune response to injection of phytohemagglutinin in suckling female calves. Calves were assigned randomly to one of the four treatments, including whole milk without additives (control), whole milk containing probiotic, whole milk containing prebiotic and whole milk containing probiotic and prebiotic (synbiotic). Average daily gain was greater in calves fed probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic at weeks 6, 7 and 8 (p<0.05). E. coli count was significantly lower in calves fed probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic on d 56 (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between treatments in blood samples and cell-mediated response. This study showed that addition of probiotic, prebiotic and combination of these additives to milk enhanced ADG and reduced fecal E. coli count in preruminant calves.

Keywords

Holstein Calves;Multi-strain Probiotic;Mannanoligosaccharides Beta-glucan;E. coli Count;Cell-mediated Immune Response

References

  1. Abe, F. and S. shimamura. 1995. Effect of administration of Bifidiobacteria and Lactic acid bacteria to newborn calves and piglets. J. Dairy Sci. 78:2838-2846. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76914-4
  2. Apgar, G. A., E. T. Kornegay, M. D. Lindemann and C. M. Wood. 1993. The effect of feeding various levels of Bifidobacterium globosum A on the performance, gastrointestinal measurements, and immunity of weaning pigs and on performance and carcass measurements of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:2173-2179.
  3. Amabile-Cuevas, C., M. Cardenas-Garcia and M. Ludgar. 1995. Antibiotic resistance. J. Anim. Sci. 83:320-332.
  4. Cruywagen, C. W., J. Ina and L. Venter. 1995. Effect of lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation of milk replacer on preweaning performance of calves. J. Dairy Sci. 79:483-486.
  5. Deng, Z. Y., J. W. Zhang, J. Li, Y. W. Fan, S. W. Cao, R. L. Huang, Y. L. Yin, H. Y. Zhong and T. J. Li. 2007. Effect of polysaccharides of cassiae seeds on the intestinal microflora of piglets. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 16(Suppl 1):143-147.
  6. Deng, Z. Y., J. W. Zhang, G. Y. Wu, Y. L. Yin, Z. Ruan, T. J. Li, W. Y. Chu, X. F. Kong, Y. M. Zhang, Y. W. Fan, R. Liu and R. L. Huang. 2007. Dietary supplementation with polysaccharides from Semen cassiae enhances immunoglobulin production and interleukin gene expression in early-weaned piglets. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87:1868-1873. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2908
  7. Donovan, D. C., S. T. Franklin, C. C. Chase and A. R. Hippen. 2002. Growth and health of Holstein calves fed replacer supplemented with antibiotics or Enteroguard. J. Dairy Sci. 85: 947-950. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74153-2
  8. Elam, N. A., J. F. Gleghorn, J. D. Rivera, M. L. Galyean, P. J. Defoor, M. M. Brashears and S. M. Younts-dahl. 2003. Effects of live cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus (strains NP45 and NP51) and propionibacteroum freudenreichii on performance, carcass, and intestinal characteristics and Escherichia coli strain 0157 shedding of finishing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 81: 2686-2698.
  9. Emmanuel, D. G. V., A. Jafari, K. A. Beauchemin and J. A. Z. Leedle. 2007. Feeding live cultures of Enterococcus faecium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces an inflammatory response in feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. 85:233-239. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2006-216
  10. Fevier, R., A. Francois, M. Michel, R. Pero and E. Salmon-Legagneur. 1955. Antibiotic and growth. Compates Rendus DE l`Acdemic D`Agriculture de France 41:698.
  11. Fleige, S. W., H. H. D. Preibinger and W. P. Mayer. 2009. The immunmodulatory effect of lactulose on entereococcus faecium-fed preruminant calves. J. Anim. Sci. 87:1731-1738. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0494
  12. Franklin, S, T., M. C. Newman, K. E. Newman and K. I. Meek. 2005. Immune parameter of dry cows fed mannano-ligosacchrides and subsequent transfer of immunity to calves. J. Dairy Sci. 88:766-775. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72740-5
  13. Fuller, R. 1989. Probiotics in man and animal. A review. Appl. Bacteriol. 66:365-378. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1989.tb05105.x
  14. Guo, X., D. Li, W. Lu, X. Piao and. X. Chen. 2006. Screening of Bacillus strains as potential probiotics and subsequent confirmation of the in vivo effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis MA139 in pigs. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 90:139-146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-006-9067-9
  15. Heinrichs, A. J., M. Jones and B. S. Heinrichs. 2003. Effects of mannanoligosaccharide or antibiotic in neonatal diets on health and growth of dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 86:4064-4069. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)74018-1
  16. Hong, H. A., L. H. Duc and S. M. Cutting. 2005. The use of bacterial spore formers as probiotics. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 29:813-835. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.femsre.2004.12.001
  17. Huang, R. L., Y. L. Yin, G. Y. Wu, Y. G. Zhang, T. J. Li, L. L. Li, M. X. Li, Z. R. Tang, J. Zhang, B. Wang, J. H. He and X. Z. Nie. 2005. Effect of dietary oligochitosan supplementation on ileal digestibility of nutrients and performance in broilers. J. Poult. Sci. 84:1383-1388. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/84.9.1383
  18. Huang, R. L., Y. L. Yin, M. X. Li, G. Y. Wu, T. J. Li, L. L. Li, C. B. Yang, J. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Y. Deng, Y. G. Zhang, Z. R. Tang, P. Kang and Y. M. Guo. 2007. Dietary oligochitosan supplementation enhances immune status of broilers. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87:153-159. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2694
  19. Kaila, M., E. Isolauri, E. Soppi, E. Virtanen, S. Laine and H. Arvilommi. 1992. Enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhoea by a human Lactobacillus strain. Pediatr. Res. 32:141-144. https://doi.org/10.1203/00006450-199208000-00002
  20. Kaufhold, J. H., M. Hammon and J. Blum. 2000. Fructoligosaccharide supplementation: effects on metabolic, endocrine and hematological traits in veal calves. J. Vet. Med. 47:2-20.
  21. Kelly, R. 2004. Effects of Mannanoligosaccharide supplementation on immune status of mares and their foals. MSc thesis, University of Florida. USA.
  22. Kogan, G. and A. Kocher. 2007. Role of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in pig nutrition and health protection. J. Livest. Sci. 75:1009-1016.
  23. Kong, X. F., G. Y. Wu, Y. P. Liao, Z. P. Hou, H. J. Liu, F. G. Yin, T. J. Li, R. L. Huang, Y. M. Zhang, D. Deng, P. Kang, R. X. Wang, Z. Y. Tang, C. B. Yang, Z. Y. Deng, H. Xiong, W. Y. Chu, Z. Yuan, M. Y. Xie and Y. L. Yin. 2007. Effects of Chinese herbal ultra-fine powder as a dietary additive on growth performance, serum metabolites and intestinal health in early-weaned piglets. Livest. Sci. 108:272-275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.01.079
  24. Kong, X. F., G. Y. Wu, Y. L. Yin, H. J. Liu, F. G. Yin, T. J. Li, R. L. Huang, P. Kang, F. Xing, M. Z. Fan, C. B. Yang and Q. H. He. 2007. Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal ultra-fine 3 powder enhances cellular and humoral immunity in early weaned piglets. Livest. Sci. 108:94-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.01.002
  25. Kong, X. F., Y. L. Yin, Q. H. He, F. G. Yin, H. J. Liu, T. J. Li, R. L. Huang, M. M. Geng, Z. Ruan, Z. Y. Deng, M. Y. Xie and G. Wu. 2008. Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal powder enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in young pigs. Amino Acids 37:573-582.
  26. Kong, X. F., Y. Z. Zhang, Y. L. Yin, G. Y. Wu, H. J. Zhou, Z. L. Tan, F. Yang, M. J. Bo, R. L. Huang, T. J. Li and M. M. Geng. 2009. Chinese Yam polysaccharide enhances growth performance and cellular immune response in weanling rats. J. Sci. Food Agric. 89:2039-2044. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3688
  27. Kong, X. F., G. Y. Wu and Y. L. Yin. 2011. Roles of phytochemicals in amino acid nutrition. Front. Biosci. S3:372-384.
  28. Lesmeister, K. E. A. Heinrichs, and M. T. Gabier. 2004. Effects of supplemental yeast culture on rumen development, growth character and blood parameters in neonatal dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 87:1832-1839. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73340-8
  29. Li, L. L., Z. P. Hou, C. B. Yang, G. Y. Wu, R. L. Huang, Z. R. Tang, J. H. Gong, H. Yu, T. J. Li, X. F. Kong, C. F. Pan, J. Deng, X. Q. Wang, G. Yin and Y. L. Yin. 2008. Effects of probiotic supplementation on ileal digestibility of nutrients and growth performance in 1-d-old to 42-d-old broilers. J. Sci. Food Agric. 88:135-142.
  30. Liu, P., X. S. Piao, S. W. Kim, L. Wang, Y. B. Shen, H. S. Lee and S. Y. Li. 2008. Effects of chito-oligosaccharides supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and fecal shedding of Escherichia coli and lactobacillus in weaning pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86:2609-2618. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0668
  31. Miguel, J. C., S. L. Rodriguez-Zas and J. E. Pettigrew. 2004. Efficacy of a mannan oligosaccharide ($Bio-Mos^{(R)}$) for improving nursery pig performance. J. Swine Health Prod. 12: 296-307.
  32. Michael, D. and B. S. Abney. 2001. Effects of feeding direct-fed microbials and prebiotics on receiving calf performance, health, and fecal shedding of pathogens. Msc thesis, Texas Tech University, August 2001.
  33. Mohamadi, P. and N. Dabiri. 2011. Effects of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic on performance and humoral immune response of female suckling calves. In proceeding of the 62nd annual meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. Stavanger, Norway. 29 August to 2 September, 2011. p. 204.
  34. Morrill, J. L., M. Morrill and A. M. Feyerherm. 1995. Plasma protein and probiotic as ingredients in milk replacer. J. Dairy Sci. 78:902-907. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76704-2
  35. Okamoto, Y., A. Inoue, K. Miyatake, K. Ogihara, Y. Shigemasa and S. Minami. 2003. Effects of chitin/chitosan and their oligomers/monomers on migrations of macrophages. Macromol. Biosci. 3:587-590. https://doi.org/10.1002/mabi.200350026
  36. Panda, A. K., S. S. Rama-Rao, M. V. Raju and S. S. Sharma. 2007. Effect of probiotic feeding on egg production and quality, yolk cholesterol and humoral immune response of white leghorn layer breeders. J. Sci. Food Agric. 88:43-47.
  37. Piddock, L. J. V. 1996. Does the use of antimicrobial gent in veterinary medicine and animal husbandry select antibiotic resistant bacteria that can infect man and compromise antimicrobial chemotherapy? J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 38:1-3.
  38. Quigley, J. D. L., B. Wallis, H. Downlow and R. N. Heitman. 1992. Sodium bicarbonate and yeast culture effects on ruminal fermentation, growth and intake in dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 75:3531-3538. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)78129-6
  39. Quigley, J. D., J. J. Drewry, L. M. Murray and S. J. Ivey. 1997. Body weight gain, feed efficiency, and fecal scores of dairy calves in response to galactosyl-lactose or antibiotics in milk replacers. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1751- 1754. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76108-3
  40. Riddell, J. B., A. J. Gallegos, D. L. Harmon and K. R. Mcleod. 2010. Addition of a Bacillus based probitic to the diet of preruminant calves: influence on growth, health, and blood parameters. Intern. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med. 8:78-85.
  41. Rolfe, R. D. 2000. The role of probiotic cultures in the control of gastrointestinal health. J. Nutr. 130:398S-402S.
  42. Rivera, J. D., G. C. Duff, M. L. Galyean, D. A. Walker and G. E. Nunnery. 2002. Effects of supplemental vitamin E on performance, health and humoral immune response of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 80:933-941.
  43. Rust, S. R., K. Metz and D. R. Ware. 2000. Effects of $Bovamine^{TM}$ rumen culture on the performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. 78(Supp2):83(Abstr.).
  44. SAS Institute. 2000. SAS user's guide. Statistics, version 8.01. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.
  45. Shim, S. B. 2005. Effects of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics in the diet of young pigs. Ph.D. Thesis. Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University and Research Center, Wageningen, Netherlands.
  46. Smits, J. E., G. R. Bortolotti and J. L. Tella. 1999. Simplifying the phytohaemagglutinin skin-testing technique in studies of avian immunocompetence. Funct. Ecol. 13:567-572. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2435.1999.00338.x
  47. Tang, Z. R., L. Y. Yin, C. M. Nyachoti, R. L. Huang, T. J. Li, C. B. Yang, X. J. Yang, J. Gong, J. Peng, D. S. Qi, J. J. Xing, Z. H. Sun and M. Z. Fan. 2005. Effect of dietary supplementation of chitosan and galacto-mannan-oligosaccharide on serum parameters and the insulin like growth factor-I mRNA expression in early-weaned piglets. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 28:430-441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2005.02.003
  48. Timmerman, H. M., L. Mudler, H. Everts and D. C. Vanespan. 2005. Health and growth of veal calves fed milk replacer with or without probiotics. J. Dairy Sci. 75:894-899.
  49. Windschitl, M., M. Paul, M. Kirsten and J. Donald. 1991. "Growth performance of Holstein dairy calves supplemented with a probiotics". Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management. University of Alaska Fairbanks. April 1991.
  50. Yin, Y. L., Z. R. Tang, Z. H. Sun, Z. Q. Liu, T. J. Li, R. L. Huang, Z. Ruan, Z. Y. Deng, B. Gao, L. X. Chen, G. Y. Wu and S. W. Kim. 2008. Effect of galacto-mannan-oligosaccharides or chitosan supplementation on cytoimmunity and humoral immunity response in early-weaned piglets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:723-731. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.70408
  51. Yoon, I. K. and M. D. Stern. 1995. Influence of direct-fed microbials on ruminal microbial fermentation and performance of ruminants: A review. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 8:533-555. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1995.553

Cited by

  1. Aflatoxin, Fumonisin and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in Calves and the Effectiveness of Celmanax®/Dairyman’s Choice™ Applications to Eliminate Morbidity and Mortality Losses vol.5, pp.10, 2013, https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins5101872
  2. Effects of Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli K88 vol.93, pp.1, 2013, https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03412
  3. Performance of Holstein calves fed whole milk with or without kefir vol.99, pp.10, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-10921
  4. Effects of Humate and Probiotic on the Number of Escherichia coli, Blood and Antioxidant Parameters in Suckling Period of Calves vol.12, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3923/ajava.2017.169.176
  5. The effects of a medical plant mix and probiotic on performance and health status of suckling Holstein calves vol.16, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2016.1249421
  6. Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics pp.1759-5053, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1038/nrgastro.2017.75
  7. supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization and faecal characteristics in Murrah buffalo calves vol.102, pp.3, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12878
  8. Effect of prebiotic supplementation with stabilized rice bran in milk of pre-weaned organic Holstein calves vol.15, pp.1, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1802-3