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Effect of Population Reduction on mtDNA Diversity and Demographic History of Korean Cattle Populations

  • Dadi, Hailu ;
  • Lee, Seung-Hwan ;
  • Jung, Kyoung-Sup ;
  • Choi, Jae-Won ;
  • Ko, Moon-Suck ;
  • Han, Young-Joon ;
  • Kim, Jong-Joo ;
  • Kim, Kwan-Suk
  • Received : 2012.03.05
  • Accepted : 2012.04.26
  • Published : 2012.09.01

Abstract

The population sizes of three Korean indigenous cattle populations have been drastically reduced over the past decades. In this study, we examined the extent to which reduction in populations influenced genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history using complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences. The complete mtDNA control region was sequenced in 56 individuals from Korean Black (KB), Jeju Black (JEB) and Korean Brindle (BRI) cattle populations. We included 27 mtDNA sequences of Korean Brown (BRO) from the GenBank database. Haplotype diversity estimate for the total population was high (0.870) while nucleotide diversity was low (0.004). The KB showed considerably low nucleotide (${\pi}$ = 0.001) and haplotype (h = 0.368) diversities. Analysis of molecular variance revealed a low level of genetic differentiation but this was highly significant (p<0.001) among the cattle populations. Of the total genetic diversity, 7.6% was attributable to among cattle populations diversity and the rest (92.4%) to differences within populations. The mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests revealed that KB population was in genetic equilibrium or decline. Indeed, unless an appropriate breeding management practice is developed, inbreeding and genetic drift will further impoverish genetic diversity of these cattle populations. Rational breed development and conservation strategy is needed to safeguard these cattle population.

Keywords

Cattle;Mitochondrial DNA;Genetic Diversity;Population Expansion

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