- Volume 13 Issue 7
DOI QR Code
Children Pain Using Four Pain Assessment Tools - Faces, Glasses, Chips, Colors
4개의 도구를 이용한 아동의 통증
- Kim, Kyeong-Uoon (Department of Nursing, Kangwon National University)
- 김경운 (강원대학교 간호학과)
- Received : 2012.04.23
- Accepted : 2012.07.12
- Published : 2012.07.31
The purpose of this study is to measure and evaluate the degree of the pain using tools such as faces, glasses, chips, and colors for 96 children in three general hospitals. The children preferred faces, glasses, chips and colors in order, and they preferred orange color for pain-free and black for intense pain. The pain score was significantly high with the children who did not have experience in hospital except colors tool in the difference by means of general characteristics(faces, glasses, chips; p<0.05). Faces, glasses, chips, colors tools are pain assessment tools which are easy simple to handle by children including family and medical personnel. We expect these tools will be used in many ways to assess pain according to a child's age in a clinical setting.
- E.M., Taylor, K., Boyer, F.A., Campbell. Pain in hospitalized children: a prospective cross-sectional survey of pain prevalence, intensity, assessment and management in a Canadian pediatric teaching hospital. Pain & Research Management, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 25-32, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1155/2008/478102
- Y.M., Weng, Y.C., Chang, Y.J., Lin. Triage pain scales cannot predict analgesia provision to pediatric patients with long-bone fracture. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 412-417, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2008.12.035
- M., McCaffery, E.S., Robinson. Your patient is in pain: here's how you respond. Nursing, Vol. 32, No. 10, pp. 36-45. 2002.
- T., St-Laurent-Gagnon, A.C., Bernard-Bonnin, E., Villeneuve. Pain evaluation in preschool children and by their parents. Acta Paediatr, Vol. 88, No. 4, pp. 422-427, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.1999.tb01134.x
- J.E., Beyer, P.J., McGrath, C.B., Berde. Discordance Between Self-Report and Behavioral Pain Measures in Children Aged 3-7 Years After Surgery. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 350-356. 1990. https://doi.org/10.1016/0885-3924(90)90029-J
- B., Bulloch, M., Tenenbein. Validation of 2 pain scales for use in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatrics. Vol. 110, No. 3, pp. e33, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.110.3.e33
- American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Fetus and Newborn and Section on Surgery, & Canadian Pediatrics Society and Fetus and Newborn Committee. Prevention and management of pain in the neonate: An update. Pediatrics, Vol. 118 No. 5, pp. 2231-2241, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2006-2277
- R.S., Hannallah, L.M., Broadman, A.B., Belman, et al. Comparison of caudal and ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve blocks for control of post-orchiopexy pain in pediatric ambulatory surgery. Anesthesiology, Vol. 66, pp. 832-834, 1987. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-198706000-00023
- P.J., McGrath, G., Johnson, J.T., Goodman, et al. The CHEOPS: a behavioral scale to measure postoperative pain in children. In H., Fields, R., Dubner, F., Cervero, editors: Advances in pain research and therapy, New York: Raven Press, 1985.
- B., Stevens. Development and testing of a pediatric pain management sheet. Pediatric Nursing, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 543-548, 1990.
- S.I., Merkel, T., Voepel-Lewis, J.R., Shayevitz, et al. The FLACC: a behavioral scale for scoring postoperative pain in young children. Pediatric Nursing, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 293-297, 1997.
- D.D., Wong, C.M., Baker. Pain in Children: Comparison of Assessment Scales. Pediatric Nursing, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 9-17, 1988.
- J.E., Beyer, M.J., Denyes, A.M., Villarruel. The creation, validation and continuing development of the Oucher: a measure of pain intensity in children, Journal of Pediatric Nursing, Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 335-346, 1992.
- N.O., Hester, R.L., Foster, M., Jordan-Marsh, et al. Putting pain measurement into clinical practice. In G.A., Finley, P.J., McGrath, editors: Measurement of pain in infants and children, Vol. 10, Seattle: International Association for the Study of Pain Press, 1998.
- M.D., Tesler, M.C., Savedra, W.L., Holzemer, et al. The word-graphic rating scale as a measure of children's and adolescents' pain intensity, Research in Nursing Health, Vol. 14, pp. 361-371, 1991. https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770140507
- M.E., Cline, J., Herman, E.R., Shaw, et al. Standardization of the visual analogue scale, Nursing Research, Vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 378-380, 1992.
- J.A., Eland, W., Banner. Analgesia, sedation, and neuromuscular blockage in pediatric critical care. In M.E., Hazinski, editor: Mannual of pediatric critical care, St. Louis: Mosby, 1999.
- J.S., Kim. Children's and nurses' perceptions of the nursing caring process and children's pain during the painful procedure of injections, Master's Thesis, Ewha Womans University, 1989.
- L., Whaley, D.L., Wong. Nursing Care of Infants and children, 3d edition. St. Louis: The C.V. Mosby Company. 1987.
- J.M., Eland. Minimizing Pain Associated with Prekindergarten Intramuscular Injections. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, Vol. 5, No. 5-6, pp. 361-372, 1981. https://doi.org/10.3109/01460868109106351
- N.K., Hester. The preoperational child's reaction to immunization, Nursing Research, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 250-255, 1979.
- S.F., Cheng, N.O., Hester, R.L., Foster, J.J., Wang. Assessment of the Convergent Validity of Pain Intensity in the Pain Sensory Tool. Journal of Nursing Research, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 93-100, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.JNR.0000347624.49605.7b
- C.C., Johnston, B., Stevens, G., Arbess. The effect of the sight of blood and use of decorative adhesive bandages on pain intensity ratings by preschool children. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 147-151, 1993.
- D., Tomlinson, C.L., Von Baeyer, J.N., Stinson. A Systematic Review of Faces Scales for the Self-report of Pain Intensity in Children. Pediatrics, Vol. 126, No. 5, pp. e1168-1198, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-1609
- C.J., Newman, R., Lolekha, K., Limkittikul, K., Luangxay, T., Chotpitayasunondh, P., Chanthavanich. A comparison of pain scales in Thai children. Archives of disease in childhood, Vol. 90, No. 3, pp. 269-270, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2003.044404
- Manchester Triage Group. Emergency Triage. London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2005.
- J., Simons, L., Macdonald. Pain assessment tools: children's nurses' views. Journal of Child Health Care. Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 264-278, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367493504047317
- M.H., Suk, Y.M., Yoon, W.O., Oh, E.S., Park. A status of assessment and management about children in pain. Journal of Child Health Nursing, Vol. ５, No. ３, pp. 262-280, 1999.