DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of Simultaneous K and Ca Application to Paddy Soil on the Uptake of Radiocaesium and Radiostrontium by Rice

논토양에 대한 K와 Ca의 동시처리가 벼의 Radiocaesium과 Radiostrontium 흡수에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2012.03.20
  • Accepted : 2012.05.10
  • Published : 2012.06.30

Abstract

A radio-tracer experiment was performed in a greenhouse to investigate the effectiveness of the simultaneous application of K and Ca as a countermeasure for reducing the radiocaesium and radiostrontium uptake by rice. Paddy soil (loam of pH 6.5) in soil boxes was spiked with $^{137}Cs$ and $^{85}Sr$, and treated with K and Ca in the forms of KCl and $Ca(OH)_2$, respectively, at agrochemical grades before transplanting. For the seeds of the control plants, soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF, $m^2\;kg^{-1}-dry$) of $^{137}Cs$ and $^{85}Sr$ were $7.4{\times}10^{-5}$ and $2.1{\times}10^{-4}$, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for the straws were $2.6{\times}10^{-4}$ and $2.2{\times}10^{-2}$, respectively. The TF values of $^{137}Cs$ and $^{85}Sr$ kept decreasing as the level of the simultaneous application of K and Ca (K/Ca, $g\;m^{-2}$) increased up to 33.6/322 and 48.0/460, respectively. The maximum rate of the decrease was around 60% for both radionuclides. Nearly 60% reduction in the TF value of $^{85}Sr$ was observed even at the dosage of 33.6/322, which was considered the optimum dosage based on crop productivity as well as reduction in the radiocaesium and radiostrontium uptake by rice. The optimum dosage may depend on various factors so further experiments need to be made for many different conditions.

References

  1. Till JE, Meyer HR. Radiological Assessment. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG/CR-3332, ORNL-5968. 1983.
  2. 최용호, 임광묵, 황원태, 이한수, 이창우. 원자력 사고후 쌀알과 배추내 $^{90}Sr$$^{137}Cs$ 농도 예측. 방사선방어학회지. 2002;27:127-146.
  3. Fesenko SV, Alexakhin RM, Balonov MI, Bogdevitch IM, Howard BJ, Kashparov VA, Sanzharova NI, Panov AV, Voigt G, Zhuchenka YM. An extended critical review of twenty years of countermeasures used in agriculture after the Chernobyl accident. Sci. Tot. Environ. 2007;383:1-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.05.011
  4. Nisbet AF, Konoplev AV, Shaw G, Lembrechts JF, Merckx R, Smolders E, Vandecasteele CM, Lonsjo H, Carini F, Burton O. Application of fertilizers and ameliorants to reduce soil to plant transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in the medium to long term - a summary. Sci. Tot. Environ. 1993;137:173-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(93)90386-K
  5. Vidal M, Camps M, Grebenshikova N, Sanzharova N, Ivanov Y, Vandecasteele C, Shand C, Rigol A, Firsakova S, Fesenko S, Levchuk S, Cheshire M, Sauras T, Rauret G. Soil- and plant-based countermeasures to reduce $^{137}Cs$ and $^{90}Sr$ uptake by grasses in natural meadows: the REDUP project. J. Environ. Radioact. 2001;56:139-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(01)00051-0
  6. Lembrechts J. A review of literature on the effectiveness of chemical amendments in reducing the soil-to-plant transfer of radiostrontium and radiocaesium. Sci. Tot. Environ. 1993;137:81-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(93)90379-K
  7. Choi YH, Lim KM, Jun I, Keum DK, Lee CW. Effects of the simultaneous application of potassium and calcium on the soil-to-Chinese cabbage transfer of radiocesium and radiostrontium. J. Environ. Radioact. 2008;99:1853- 1858. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2008.08.007
  8. 김재성. $^{90}Sr$$^{137}Cs$의 답토양별 흡.탈착과 수도체의 흡수양상에 미치는 연구. 고려대학교 박사학위 논문. 1985.
  9. Choi YH, Lim KM, Choi HJ, Choi GS, Lee HS, Lee CW. Plant uptake and downward migration of $^{85}Sr$ and $^{137}Cs$ after their deposition on to flooded rice fields: lysimeter experiments with and without the addition of KCl and lime. J. Environ. Radioact. 2005;78:35-49.
  10. International Advisory Committee. The International Chernobyl Project. Technical Report. IAEA, Vienna. 1991.
  11. Gerzabek MH, Strebl F, Temmel B. Plant uptake of radionuclides in lysimeter ecperiments. Environ. Poll. 1998;99:93-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(97)00167-X
  12. Tuovinen TS, Roivainen P, Makkonen S, Kolehmainen M. Holopainen T. Juutilainen J. Soilto-plant transfer of elements is not linear: Results for five elements relevant to radioactive waste in five boreal forest species. Sci. Tot. Environ. 2011;410-411:191-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.09.043
  13. 이은웅. 수도작(사정). 향문사. 서울. 1996.
  14. Choi YH, Lim KM, Park HG, Park DW, Kang HS, Lee HS. Transfer of $^{137}Cs$ to rice plants from various paddy soils contaminated under flooded conditions at different growth stages. J. Environ. Radioact. 2005;80:45-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.08.013
  15. Choi YH, Kang HS, Jun I, Keum DK, Park HG, Choi GS, Lee HS, Lee CW. Transfer of $^{90}Sr$ to rice plants after its acute deposition onto flooded paddy soils. J. Environ. Radioact. 2007;93:157-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2006.12.008
  16. Nishita H, Romney EM, Larson KH. Uptake of radioactive fission products by crop plants. Agric. Food Chem. 1961;2:101-106.
  17. Carini F, Lombi E. Foliar and soil uptake of $^{134}Cs$ and $^{85}Sr$ by grape vines. Sci. Tot. Environ. 1997;207:157-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(97)00261-1
  18. 최용호, 임광묵, 전인, 금동권. 감자의 재배기간 중 토양에 침적한 $^{54}Mn$, $^{60}Co$, $^{85}Sr$, $^{137}Cs$의 작물체로의 전이. 방사선방어학회지. 2008;33:105-112.
  19. Nisbet AF, Shaw S. Summary of a five-year lysimeter study on the time-dependent transfer of $^{137}Cs$, $^{90}Sr$, $^{239,240}Pu$ and $^{241}Am$ to crops from three contrasting soil types: 2. Distribution between different plant parts. J. Environ. Radioact. 1994;23: 171-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/0265-931X(94)90059-0
  20. Marschiner H. Mineral Nutrition in Higher Plants. Academic Press. 1986.
  21. Smolders E. Concentrations of $^{137}Cs$ and K in soil solution predict the plant availability of $^{137}Cs$ in soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1997;31:3432-3438. https://doi.org/10.1021/es970113r
  22. Massas I, Skarlou V, Haidouti C, Giannakopoulou F. $^{134}Cs$ uptake by four plant species and Cs-K relations in the soil-plant system as affected by $Ca(OH)_2$ application to an acid soil. J. Environ. Radioact. 2010;101:250-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.11.010
  23. Giannakopoulou F, Haidouti C, Chronopoulou A, Gasparatos D. Sorption behavior of cesium on various soils under different pH levels. J. Haz. Mater. 2007;149:553-556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.06.109
  24. Anderson AJ. Influence of liming and mineral fertilization on plant uptake of radiostrontium from Danish soils. Soil Sci. 95;1963:52-59.
  25. 조성진, 박천서, 엄대익. 토양학(삼정). 향문사. 서울. 1997.