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Educational attainment and differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among middle-aged adults in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

  • Hong, Seo-Ah (Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University) ;
  • Kim, Ki-Rang (Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University) ;
  • Kim, Mi-Kyung (Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University)
  • Received : 2011.11.14
  • Accepted : 2012.05.20
  • Published : 2012.06.30

Abstract

We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimated from 24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Differences in FV consumption related to educational attainment were analyzed according to different nutritional categories of FV. Both men and women in the low-education group had the lowest intake of total FV and total fruits, and women also had the lowest intake of total vegetables. Also lowest in this group was consumption of mushrooms and vegetables (excluding kimchi) among men, and cruciferous and allium vegetables (excluding Chinese cabbage and radish) among women, while kimchi consumption was the highest in this group. Additionally, an association between educational level and intake of citrus fruits was evident among men. Adults in the low-education group consumed less carotene-rich FV, red fruit and/or vegetables, and dark-green leafy vegetables, fewer total vegetable dishes, and fewer types of fruit than in other groups. Men in this group had the lowest intake of yellow/orange fruit and/or vegetables, and women consumed the least folate-rich FV. There is a clear association between educational attainment and FV intake with regard to total intake, and to specific nutrients, bioactive compounds, colors, and variety.

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