- Volume 6 Issue 3
DOI QR Code
Antibacterial effect of citrus press-cakes dried by high speed and far-infrared radiation drying methods
- Samarakoon, Kalpa (School of Marine Biomedical Sciences, Jeju National University) ;
- Senevirathne, Mahinda (Marine Bioprocess Research Centre, Pukyoung National University) ;
- Lee, Won-Woo (School of Marine Biomedical Sciences, Jeju National University) ;
- Kim, Young-Tae (Food Biotechnology Major, Kunsan National University) ;
- Kim, Jae-Il (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pukyoung National University) ;
- Oh, Myung-Cheol (Department of Tourism Hotel Culinary Art, Jeju College of Technology) ;
- Jeon, You-Jin (School of Marine Biomedical Sciences, Jeju National University)
- Received : 2011.09.01
- Accepted : 2012.05.18
- Published : 2012.06.30
In this study, the antibacterial effect was evaluated to determine the benefits of high speed drying (HSD) and far-infrared radiation drying (FIR) compared to the freeze drying (FD) method. Citrus press-cakes (CPCs) are released as a by-product in the citrus processing industry. Previous studies have shown that the HSD and FIR drying methods are much more economical for drying time and mass drying than those of FD, even though FD is the most qualified drying method. The disk diffusion assay was conducted, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined with methanol extracts of the dried CPCs against 11 fish and five food-related pathogenic bacteria. The disk diffusion results indicated that the CPCs dried by HSD, FIR, and FD prevented growth of all tested bacteria almost identically. The MIC and MBC results showed a range from 0.5-8.0 mg/mL and 1.0-16.0 mg/mL respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the extracts changed the morphology of the bacteria cell wall, leading to destruction. These results suggest that CPCs dried by HSD and FIR showed strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and are more useful drying methods than that of the classic FD method in CPCs utilization.
- Denyer SP, Hugo WB. Mechanisms of antibacterial action - a summary. In: Denyer SP, Hugo WB, editors. Mechanisms of Action of Chemical Biocides. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1991. p.331-4.
- Kim YS, Kim HH, Yoo MJ, Shin DH. Bactericidal effect of the extracts of Polygonum cuspidatum on Bacillus cereus. Food Sci Biotechnol 2004;13:430-3.
- Nychas GJE. Natural antimicrobials from plants. In: Gould GW, editor. New Methods of Food Preservation. London: Blackie Academic and Professional; 1995. p.58-89.
- de Billerbeck VG, Roques CG, Bessière JM, Fonvieille JL, Dargent R. Effects of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) W. Watson essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger. Can J Microbiol 2001;47:9-17. https://doi.org/10.1139/w00-117
- Tsuchiya H, Iinuma M. Reduction of membrane fluidity by antibacterial sophoraflavanone G isolated from Sophora exigua. Phytomedicine 2000;7:161-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80089-6
- Ikigai H, Nakae T, Hara Y, Shimamura T. Bactericidal catechins damage the lipid bilayer. Biochim Biophys Acta 1993;1147:132-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(93)90323-R
- Ultee A, Bennik MH, Moezelaar R. The phenolic hydroxyl group of carvacrol is essential for action against the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Appl Environ Microbiol 2002;68:1561-8. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.68.4.1561-1568.2002
- Beuchat LR, Golden DA. Antimicrobials occurring naturally in foods. Food Technol 1989;43:134-42.
- Haraguchi H, Tanimoto K, Tamura Y, Mizutani K, Kinoshita T. Mode of antibacterial action of retrochalcones from Glycyrrhiza inflata. Phytochemistry 1998;48:125-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(97)01105-9
- Mori A, Nishino C, Enoki N, Tawata S. Antibacterial activity and mode of action of plant flavonoids against Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus. Phytochemistry 1998;26:2231-4.
- Ohemeng KA, Schwender CF, Fu KP, Barrett JF. DNA gyrase inhibitory and antibacterial activity of some flavones (1). Bioorg Med Chem Lett 1993;3:225-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-894X(01)80881-7
- Lee SW, Najiah M. Antimicrobial property of 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-Tricarboxylic acid isolated from Citrus microcarpa extract. Agric Sci China 2009;8:880-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1671-2927(08)60291-6
- Nannapaneni R, Muthaiyan A, Crandall PG, Johnson MG, O'Bryan CA, Chalova VI, Callaway TR, Carroll JA, Arthington JD, Nisbet DJ, Ricke SC. Antimicrobial activity of commercial citrus-based natural extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates and mutant strains. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2008;5:695-9. https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2008.0124
- Senevirathne M, Jeon YJ, Ha JH, Kim SH. Effective drying of citrus by-product by high speed drying: A novel drying technique and their antioxidant activity. J Food Eng 2009;92:157-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.10.033
- Senevirathne M, Kim SH, Kim YD, Oh CK, Oh MC, Ahn CB, Je JY, Lee WW, Jeon YJ. Effect of far-infrared radiation drying of citrus press-cakes on free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. J Food Eng 2010;97:168-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.10.006
Senevirathne M, Kim SH, Um BH, Lee JS, Ha JH, Lee WW, Jeon YJ. Effect of high speed drying on antioxidant properties of enzymatic digests from citrus by-products and their protective effect on DNA damage induced by
$H_2O_2$. Food Sci Biotechnol 2009;18:672-81.
- Callaway TR, Carroll JA, Edrington TS, Anderson RC, Collier CT, Nisbet DJ. Citrus products and their use against bacteria: Potential health and cost benefits. In: Watson R, Gerald JL, Preedy VR, editors. Nutrients, Dietary Supplements, and Nutriceutical: Cost Analysis Versus Clinical Benefits. New York: Humana press; 2011. p.277-86.
Senevirathne M, Jeon YJ, Ha JH, Kim SH. Effect of far-infrared radiation for dying citrus by-products and their radical scavenging activities and protective effects against
$H_2O_2$- induced DNA damage. J Food Sci Nutr 2008;13:313-20. https://doi.org/10.3746/jfn.2008.13.4.313
- Meena MR, Sethi V. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from spices. J Food Sci Technol 1994;31:68-70.
- Rota C, Carraminana JJ, Burillo J, Herrera A. In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants against selected foodborne pathogens. J Food Prot 2004;67:1252-6.
- Cai L, Wu CD. Compounds from Syzygium aromaticum possessing growth inhibitory activity against oral pathogens. J Nat Prod 1996;59:987-90. https://doi.org/10.1021/np960451q
- Patrick R. Antimicrobial Agents and Susceptibility Testing. Washington, DC: Murray; 1996.
- Bae EA, Han MJ, Kim DH. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of some flavonoids and their metabolites. Planta Med 1999;65:442-3. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-960805
- Taguri T, Tanaka T, Kouno I. Antimicrobial activity of 10 different plant polyphenols against bacteria causing food-borne disease. Biol Pharm Bull 2004;27:1965-9. https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.27.1965
- Scherrer R, Gerhardt P. Molecular sieving by the Bacillus megaterium cell wall and protoplast. J Bacteriol 1971;107:718-35.
- Nikaido H, Vaara M. Molecular basis of bacterial outer membrane permeability. Microbiol Rev 1985;49:1-32.
- Verschuere L, Rombaut G, Sorgeloos P, Verstraete W. Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2000;64:655-71. https://doi.org/10.1128/MMBR.64.4.655-671.2000
- Ortuno A, Baidez A, Gomez P, Arcas MC, Porras I, Garcia-Lidon A, Del Rio JA. Citrus paradisi and Citrus sinensis Flavonoids: Their influence in the defence mechanism against Penicillium digitatum. Food Chem 2006;98:351-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.06.017
- Yi ZB, Yu Y, Liang YZ, Zeng B. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extract of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae of a new Citrus cultivar and its main flavonoids. Lebenson Wiss Technol 2007;41:597-603.
- Jo C, Park BJ, Chung SH, Kim CB, Cha BS, Byun MW. Antibacterial and anti-fungal activity of citrus (Citrus unshiu) essential oil extracted from peel by-products. Food Sci Biotechnol 2004;13:384-6.
- Kitzberger CS, Smania A Jr, Pedrosa RC, Ferreira SR. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extracts obtained by organic solvents and supercritical fluids. J Food Eng 2007;80:631-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.06.013
- Huang B, Aung SK, Wang Y. Thousand Formulas and Thousand Herbs of Traditional Chinese Medicine. vol. 1. Harbin: Heilongjiang Education Press; 1993.
- Ghasemi K, Ghasemi Y, Ebrahimzadeh MA. Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of 13 citrus species peels and tissues. Pak J Pharm Sci 2009;22:277-81.
- Johann S, Oliveira VL, Pizzolatti MG, Schripsema J, Braz-Filho R, Branco A, Smânia A Jr. Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2007;102:681-5. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762007005000087
- Yao X, Pan S, Duan C, Yang F, Fan G, Zhu X, Yang S, Xu X. Polymethoxylated flavone extracts from citrus peel for use in the functional food and nutraceutical industry. Food Sci Biotechnol 2009;18:1237-42.
- Sun Y, Wang J, Gu S, Liu Z, Zhang Y, Zhang X. Simultaneous determination of flavonoids in different parts of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' fruit by high performance liquid chromatographyphotodiode array detection. Molecules 2010;15:5378-88. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15085378
- Choi I, Choi S, Ji J. Flavonoids and functional properties of germinated citron (Citrus junos Sieb. ex TANAKA) shoots. Food Sci Biotechnol 2009;18:1224-9.
- Gorinstein S, Martin-Belloso O, Park YS, Haruenkit R, Lojek A, Ciz M, Caspi A, Libman I, Trakhtenberg S. Comparison of some biochemical characteristics of different citrus fruits. Food Chem 2001;74:309-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00157-1
- Mahmud S, Saleem M, Siddique S, Ahmed R, Khanum R, Perveen Z. Volatile components, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Citrus acida var. sour lime peel oil. J Saudi Chem Soc 2009;13:195-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2009.03.001
- Matasyoh JC, Kiplimo JJ, Karubiu NM, Hailstorks TP. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Tarchonanthus camphorates. Food Chem 2007;101:1183-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.03.021
- Zhang M, Zhang JP, Ji HT, Wang JS, Qian DH. Effect of six flavonoids on proliferation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2000;21:253-6.
- Cabello FC. Heavy use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture: a growing problem for human and animal health and for the environment. Environ Microbiol 2006;8:1137-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2006.01054.x
- Alzoreky NS, Nakahara K. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in Asia. Int J Food Microbiol 2003;80:223-30.
- Kim JS, Kim Y. The inhibitory effect of natural bioactives on the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Nutr Res Pract 2007;1:273-8. https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2007.1.4.273
- Dorman HJ, Deans SG. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol 2000;88:308-16. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.00969.x
- Abu-Shanab B, Adwan G, Abu-Safiya D, Jarrar N, Adwan K. Antibacterial activities of some plant extracts utilized in popular medicine in Palestine. Turk J Biol 2004;28:99-102.
- Sakai M. Current research status of fish immunostimulants. Aquaculture 1999;172:63-92.
- Extraction of antioxidants and flavonoids from yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka) peels: a response surface methodology study vol.11, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-016-9405-1
- Phytochemical characteristics of citrus peel and effect of conventional and nonconventional processing on phenolic compounds: A review vol.33, pp.6, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129.2016.1196489
- Chemical profiling and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., Curcuma glans K. Larsen & J. Mood and Curcuma cf. xanthorrhiza Roxb. collected in Thailand vol.7, pp.10, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.009
- Apoptotic role of marine sponge symbiont Bacillus subtilis NMK17 through the activation of caspase-3 in human breast cancer cell line vol.45, pp.6, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-018-4434-y
- Effect of Artificial LED Light and Far Infrared Irradiation on Phenolic Compound, Isoflavones and Antioxidant Capacity in Soybean (Glycine max L.) Sprout vol.7, pp.10, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100174
- The “Enseki” sandbath: A novel, safe and effective far-infrared bathing procedure for health pp.09054383, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/phpp.12418