Differential Expression of Th1- and Th2- Type Cytokines in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) on TLR2 Induction by B. Subtilis Peptidoglycan

  • Shah, Syed M. (Post-Graduate Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University) ;
  • Ravi Kumar, G.V.P.P.S. (Post-Graduate Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University) ;
  • Brah, G.S. (Post-Graduate Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University) ;
  • Santra, Lakshman (Post-Graduate Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University) ;
  • Pawar, Hitesh (Post-Graduate Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University)
  • Received : 2012.01.13
  • Accepted : 2012.03.29
  • Published : 2012.07.01


Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) discriminate microbial pathogens and induce T-cell responses of appropriate effector phenotype accordingly. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), in part, mediate this microbial recognition and differentiation while the development of T-cell effector functions critically depends on the release of Th1- or Th2- type cytokines. In the present study, buffalo PBMCs were stimulated under in vitro culture conditions by Bacillus subtilis cell wall petidoglycan, a TLR2 ligand, in a dose- and time- dependent manner. The expression of TLR2 as well as the subsequent differential induction of the Th1 and Th2 type cytokines was measured. Stimulation was analyzed across five doses of peptidoglycan ($10{\mu}g/ml$, $20{\mu}g/ml$, $30{\mu}g/ml$, $40{\mu}g/ml$ and $50{\mu}g/ml$) for 3 h, 12 h, 24 h and 36 h incubation periods. We observed the induction of TLR2 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and the peptidoglycan induced tolerance beyond $30{\mu}g/ml$ dose at all incubation periods. The correlation between peptidoglycan stimulation and TLR2 induction was found positive at all doses and for all incubation periods. Increased production of all the cytokines was observed at low doses for 3 h incubation, but the expression of IL-4 was relatively higher than IL-12 at the higher antigen doses, indicating tailoring towards Th2 response. At 12 h incubation, there was a pronounced decrease in IL-4 and IL-10 expression relative to IL-12 in a dose- dependent manner, indicating skewing to Th1 polarization. The expression of IL-12 was highest for all doses across all the incubation intervals at 24 h incubation, indicating Th1 polarization. The relative expression of TNF-${\alpha}$ and IFN-${\gamma}$ was also higher while that of IL-4 and IL-10 showed a decrease. For 36 h incubation, at low doses, relative increase in the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 was observed which decreased at higher doses, as did the expression of all other cytokines. The exhaustion of cytokine production at 36 h indicated that PBMCs became refractory to further stimulation. It can be concluded from this study that the cytokine response to sPGN initially was of Th2 type which skews, more pronouncedly, to Th1 type with time till the cells become refractory to further stimulation.


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