Uniform Hazard Spectrum Evaluation Method for Nuclear Power Plants on Soil Sites based on the Hazard Spectra of Bedrock Sites

암반 지반의 재해도 스펙트럼에 기반한 토사지반 원전 부지의 등재해도 스펙트럼 평가 기법

  • Received : 2012.03.26
  • Accepted : 2012.05.30
  • Published : 2012.06.30


We propose a probabilistic method to evaluate the uniform hazard spectra (UHS) of the soil of nuclear power plant(NPP) sites corresponding to that of a bedrock site. To do this, amplification factors on the surface of soil sites were estimated through site response analysis while considering the uncertainty in the earthquake ground motion and soil deposit characteristics. The amplification factors were calculated by regression analysis with spectral acceleration because these two factors are mostly correlated. The proposed method was applied to the evaluation of UHS for the KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) and the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) nuclear power plant sites of B1, B4, C1 and C3. The most dominant frequency range with respect to the annual frequency of earthquakes was evaluated from the UHS analysis. It can be expected that the proposed method will improve the results of integrated risk assessments of NPPs rationally. We expect also that the proposed method will be applied to the evaluation of the UHS and of many other kinds of soil sites.


  1. U.S. AEC, Design response spectra for seismic design of nuclear power plants, Revision 1, Regulatory Guide 1.60, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, 1973.
  2. U.S. NRC, Identification and characterization of seismic sources and determination of safe shutdown earthquake ground motion, Regulatory Guide 1.165, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, 1997.
  3. U.S. NRC, A performance-based approach to define the site-specific earthquake ground motion, Regulatory Guide 1.208, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, 2007.
  4. Baag, C.E., "Seismic wave attenuation in the Korean peninsula," International Workshop & Seminar on Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, Nov. 17-20, 1997.
  5. Junn, J.G., Jo, N.D., and Baag, C.E., "Stochastic prediction of ground motions in southern Korea," Geosciences Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3, 203-214, 2002.
  6. Lee, J.M., A study on the characteristics of strong ground motions in southern Korea, KINS/HR-422, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon, 77, 2002.
  7. Schnabel, P.B., Seed, H.B., and Lysmer, J., "Modification of seismograph records for effect of local soil conditions," Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, Vol. 62, 1649-1664, 1972.
  8. Faccioli, E., "A stochastic approach to soil amplification," Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, Vol. 66, No. 4, 1277-1291, 1976.
  9. Bazzurro, P., Probabilistic Seismic Demand Analysis, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, 1998.
  10. U.S. NRC, Seismic system analysis, Revision 3, Standard Review Plan 3.7.2, NUREG-0800, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, 2007.
  11. ASCE, Seismic analysis of safety-related nuclear structure and commentary, Standard No. 004-98, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 1999.
  12. 대한전기협회, 지반-구조물 상호작용 해석, STB 3317, KEPIC ST 구조총칙, Korea Electric Power Industry Code, 서울, 2000.
  13. Whitman, R.V., and Protonotarios, J.N., "Inelastic response to site-modified ground motions," Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 103, No. GT10, 1037-1053, 1977.
  14. Costantino, C.J., Miller, C.A., and Heymsfield, E., "Site specific seismic hazard calculations at deep soil sites," Proceedings of 4th DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Conference, LLNL CONF-9310102, 199-205, 1993.
  15. Silva, W.J., "Factors controlling strong ground motions and their associated uncertainties," Seismic and Dynamic Analysis and Design Considerations for High Level Nuclear Waste Repositories, ASCE, 132-161, 1993.
  16. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Guidelines for site specific gound motions, Rept. TR-102293, Vol. 1-5, Palo Alto, CA, 1993.
  17. Hwang, H.H.M., and Huo J.R., "Generation of hazardconsistent ground motion," International Journal of Soil dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 6, 377-386, 1994.
  18. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Description and validation of the stochastic ground motion model, submitted to Brookhaven National Labtoratory, Associated Universities, Inc. Upton, New York, 1997.
  19. Lee, R., Silva, W., and Cornell, A., "Alternatives in evaluating soil- and rock-site seismic hazard (abs)," Seismological Research Letters, Vol. 69, No. 1, 81, 1998.
  20. EduPro Civil Systems, ProShake: Ground Response Analysis Program, User's Manual, EduPro Civil Systems, Inc., Washington, 2003.
  21. Seed, H.B., and Idriss, I.M., Soil moduli and damping factors for dynamic response analysis, Report No. EERC 70-10, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkekey, 1970.
  22. Seed, H.B., Wong, R.T., Idriss, I.M., and Tokimatsu, K., "Moduli and damping factors for dynamic analyses of cohesionless soils," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 112, No. 11, 1016-1032, 1986.
  23. Iman, R.L., and Conover, W.J., "Small sample sensitivity analysis techniques for computer models.with an application to risk assessment," Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, Vol. 9, No. 17, 1749-1842, 1980.
  24. Han, S.H., Lim, H.G., and Cho, Y.J., "MOSAIQUE - A Sofware for Estimating Probabilistic Uncertainty of Safety Analysis using Computerized Simulation Models," ESREL 2010 Annual Conference, European Safety and Reliability Association, Sep. 6-9, 2010.
  25. Rhee, H.-M., Seo, J.-M., Choi, I.-K., and Hahm, D., "A Study on the Site Response Spectrum for Ulchin Region," Transactions of the Korean Nuclear Society Autumn Meeting, Gyeongju, Korea, Oct. 27-28, 2011.