For effective watershed management, it is very important to select the tributaries through selection and concentration of targeted tributary catchments for improving water quality within the limited financial conditions. This study introduced the selection and diagnosis procedure of tributary catchments for improving water quality at Chungcheongnam-do based on water quality and flowrate monitoring, stream grouping method. The tributaries with high value of water quality and flowrate were selected for improving water quality according to stream grouping method. The diagnosis of selected tributaries for improving water quality was performed with analysis of the pollution load (generated, discharged, delivered) and point source discharged pollution load density. The plans for improving water quality of tributaries were suggested thorough various diagnosis of tributary catchments. For improving water quality of tributaries in Chungcheongnam-do, the tributary catchments in the Dangjin, Asan, Yesan, Cheonan, Hongseong area should be preferentially considered. The water quality improving plans for those tributary catchments, in accordance with the reduction of sources of pollution by population and livestock, should be established.