DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Drinking behaviors by stress level in Korean university students

  • Chung, Hye-Kyung ;
  • Lee, Hae-Young
  • Received : 2012.01.17
  • Accepted : 2012.03.09
  • Published : 2012.04.30

Abstract

The purposes of this study are to estimate the stress level of university students, and to verify the relationships between stress level and drinking behavior. A questionnaire survey was administered to 430 university students in the Gangwon area in Korea from November 5 to November 28, 2008, and data from 391 students were used for the final statistical analysis. The most stressful factor was "Worry about academic achievements" (2.86 by Likert-type 4 point scale). The subjects were divided into two groups, a low stress group (${\leq}65.0$) and a high stress group (${\geq}66.0$), by the mean value (65.1) and median value (66.0) of the stress levels. The drinking frequency was not different between the two stress groups, but the amount of alcohol consumption was significantly different ($P$ < 0.05). The portion of students reporting drinking "7 glasses or over" was higher in the lower stress group than in the higher stress group. In addition, factor 6, "Lack of learning ability", was negatively correlated with drinking frequency and the amount of alcohol consumption ($P$ < 0.05), and factor 3, "Worry about academic achievements", was negatively correlated with the amount of drinking ($P$ < 0.05). The major motive for drinking was "When overjoyed or there is something to celebrate" (2.62), and the main expected effect of drinking was "Drinking enables me to get together with people and shape my sociability" (2.73). The higher stress group showed significantly higher scores on several items in the categories of motives ($P$ < 0.01), negative experience ($P$ < 0.05), and expected effects ($P$ < 0.05) of drinking than the lower stress group. Our results imply that university students at the lower stress level may drink more from social motives in positive drinking environments, while those at the higher stress level may have more problematic-drinking despite their smaller amount of alcohol consumption.

Keywords

Drinking behavior;stress;university students

References

  1. Sayette MA. An appraisal-disruption model of alcohol's effects on stress responses in social drinkers. Psychol Bull 1993;114:459-76. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.114.3.459
  2. Frezza M, di Padova C, Pozzato G, Terpin M, Baraona E, Lieber CS. High blood alcohol levels in women. The role of decreased gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity and first-pass metabolism. N Engl J Med 1990;322:95-9. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199001113220205
  3. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) [Internet]. Women and alcohol. 2011 [cited 2012 February 17]. Available from: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/womensfact/womensfact.htm.
  4. Go FM, Monachello ML, Baum T. Human Resource Management in the Hospitality Industry. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1996. p.80-1.
  5. O'Hare TM. Drinking in college: consumption patterns, problems, sex differences and legal drinking age. J Stud Alcohol 1990;51:536-41. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1990.51.536
  6. Jang SO. Drinking behavior and drinking canon of college students. Korean J Soc Welf 1997;31:423-40.
  7. Park KM, Rhee MK. Effects of perceived stress, social support and drinking motives on drinking behaviors among college students. Korean J Health Psychol 2005;10:277-93. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105305049778
  8. Farber PD, Khavari KA, Douglass FM 4th. A factor analytic study of reasons for drinking: empirical validation of positive and negative reinforecement dimensions. J Consult Clin Psychol 1980;48:780-1. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.48.6.780
  9. Feldman L, Harvey B, Holowaty P, Shortt L. Alcohol use beliefs and behaviors among high school students. J Adolesc Health 1999;24:48-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(98)00026-3
  10. Kuntsche E, Knibbe R, Gmel G, Engels R. Why do young people drink? A review of drinking motives. Clin Psychol Rev 2005;25:841-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2005.06.002
  11. Hong SM, Yang JA, Jung SI, Cho JY. Comparison of drinking behaviors and symptoms after drinking alcohol of the female and male college students in Ulsan metropolitan city. Proceedings of Spring Symposium of the Korean Society of Community Nutrition. 2005. p.142-3.
  12. Carney MA, Armeli S, Tennen H, Affleck G, O'Neil TP. Positive and negative daily events, perceived stress, and alcohol use: a diary study. J Consult Clin Psychol 2000;68:788-98. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.5.788
  13. Helzer JE, Badger GJ, Searles JS, Rose GL, Mongeon JA. Stress and alcohol consumption in heavily drinking men: 2 years of daily data using interactive voice response. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2006;30:802-11. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00093.x
  14. Lewis BA, O'Neill HK. Alcohol expectancies and social deficits relating to problem drinking among college students. Addict Behav 2000;25:295-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(99)00063-5
  15. Saunders JB, Kypri K, Walters ST, Laforge RG, Larimer ME. Approaches to brief intervention for hazardous drinking in young people. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2004;28:322-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ALC.0000113418.12889.08
  16. Kim HE, Park K, Jung EH, Han JY. The effects of perceived stress, dysfunctional metacognition on problematic drinking of female university student. Proceedings of 2009 Annual Symposium of Korean Psychological Association. 2009. p.340-1.
  17. Park JS. A study on factors affecting problem drinking of university students. J Korean Public Health Assoc 2000;26:393-413.
  18. Han SH, Han D. The related factors of alcohol drinking in Korean young adults. J Korean Public Health Assoc 2001;27:130-43.
  19. Schneier FR, Martin LY, Liebowitz MR, Gorman JM, Fyer AJ. Alcohol abuse in social phobia. J Anxiety Disord 1989;3:15-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/0887-6185(89)90025-X
  20. Lepine JP, Pelissolo A. Social phobia and alcoholism: a complex relationship. J Affect Disord 1998;50 Suppl 1:S23-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327(98)00089-5
  21. Stevens S, Gerlach AL, Rist F. Effects of alcohol on ratings of emotional facial expressions in social phobics. J Anxiety Disord 2008;22:940-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.09.007
  22. Conger JJ. Alcoholism: theory, problem and challenge. II. Reinforcement theory and the dynamics of alcoholism. Q J Stud Alcohol 1956;17:296-305.
  23. Cooper ML, Frone MR, Russell M, Mudar P. Drinking to regulate positive and negative emotions: a motivational model of alcohol use. J Pers Soc Psychol 1995;69:990-1005. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.5.990
  24. Cox WM, Klinger E. A motivational model of alcohol use. J Abnorm Psychol 1988;97:168-80. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.97.2.168
  25. Kim YS. The relationship between coping motives for drinking and drinking behavior among college students. Ment Health Soc Work 2000;9:5-23.
  26. Lee MK. Psychosocial factors for drinking behavior. Korean J Psychol Gen 1993;12:165-79.
  27. Fidler TL, LoLordo VM. Failure to find postshock increases in ethanol preference. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1996;20:110-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1996.tb01053.x
  28. McCreary DR, Sadava SW. Stress, drinking, and the adverse consequences of drinking in two samples of young adults. Psychol Addict Behav 1998;12:247-61. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.12.4.247
  29. Ayer LA, Harder VS, Rose GL, Helzer JE. Drinking and stress: an examination of sex and stressor differences using IVR-based daily data. Drug Alcohol Depend 2011;115:205-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.10.022
  30. Becker HC, Lopez MF, Doremus-Fitzwater TL. Effects of stress on alcohol drinking: a review of animal studies. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2011;218:131-56. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-011-2443-9
  31. Aldridge-Gerry AA, Roesch SC, Villodas F, McCabe C, Leung QK, Da Costa M. Daily stress and alcohol consumption: modeling between-person and within-person ethnic variation in coping behavior. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2011;72:125-34. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2011.72.125
  32. Ham LS, Hope DA. College students and problematic drinking: a review of the literature. Clin Psychol Rev 2003;23:719-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(03)00071-0
  33. Han SY, Lee MK, Shin HC. Gender differences in the effect of risk factors on drinking problems in college students. Korean J Couns Psychother 2005;17:1003-19.
  34. Chun S. Analysis of college student binge drinking and alcoholrelated problems. J Korean Alcohol Sci 2002;3:221-33.
  35. Chung SK. Factors influencing problem drinking among female college students in Korea. Ment Health Soc Work 2007;27:176-98.
  36. Park SB. Recognition status of health related to smoking, alcohol drinking, and stress in a working place. J Korean Acad Fam Med 2001;22:1814-22.
  37. Johnston LD, O'Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. Monitoring the future: national survey results on drug use, 1975-2010. Volume I. Secondary school students. 2010. [cited 2012 February 17]. Available from: http://safeschools.state.co.us/docs/mtf-vol1_2010.pdf.
  38. Han GS, Yang SH, Jeon GG. Effects of perceived stress and ways of coping on symptoms of stress and drinking related problems among female college students. Korean J Health Psychol 2003;8:565-79.
  39. Chon KK, Kim KH, Yi JS. Development of the revised life stress scale for college students. Korean J Health Psychol 2000;5:316-35.
  40. Bradizza CM, Reifman A, Barnes GM. Social and coping reasons for drinking: predicting alcohol misuse in adolescents. J Stud Alcohol 1999;60:491-9. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1999.60.491
  41. Ahn HR, Pai HJ, Kim ES. Relation between self-esteem and the degree of drinking of the aged in the C city. J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 1999;8:478-92.
  42. The Korean Alcohol Research Foundation [Internet]. Disease related with alcohol. [cited 2012 February 17]. Available from: http://www.karf.or.kr/information/alcoholDB_list_1.asp.
  43. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Korea Health Statistics 2010: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANESV-1). Seoul; 2010. p.24.
  44. National Center for Health Statistics [Internet]. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: national health interview survey, 2010. Vital health statistics. [cited 2012 February 17]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_252.pdf.
  45. Kim SJ, Lee MH, Hwang MH, Namkoong K, Kim BH, Kim SA. Comparison of psychiatric symptom manifestation rate and family function of alcoholic and non-alcoholic family members. J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc 1989;28:1073-81.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Sangji University