DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Higher levels of serum triglyceride and dietary carbohydrate intake are associated with smaller LDL particle size in healthy Korean women

  • Kim, Oh-Yoen ;
  • Chung, Hye-Kyung ;
  • Shin, Min-Jeong
  • Received : 2011.12.28
  • Accepted : 2012.01.31
  • Published : 2012.04.30

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the influencing factors that characterize low density lipoprotein (LDL) phenotype and the levels of LDL particle size in healthy Korean women. In 57 healthy Korean women (mean age, $57.4{\pm}13.1$ yrs), anthropometric and biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles and LDL particle size were measured. Dietary intake was estimated by a developed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The study subjects were divided into two groups: LDL phenotype A (mean size: $269.7{\AA}$, n = 44) and LDL phenotype B (mean size: $248.2{\AA}$, n = 13). Basic characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The phenotype B group had a higher body mass index, higher serum levels of triglyceride, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo)B, and apoCIII but lower levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and LDL particle size than those of the phenotype A group. LDL particle size was negatively correlated with serum levels of triglyceride (r = -0.732, $P$ < 0.001), total-cholesterol, apoB, and apoCIII, as well as carbohydrate intake (%En) and positively correlated with serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 and fat intake (%En). A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that carbohydrate intake (%En) and serum triglyceride levels were the primary factors influencing LDL particle size ($P$ < 0.001, $R^2$ = 0.577). This result confirmed that LDL particle size was closely correlated with circulating triglycerides and demonstrated that particle size is significantly associated with dietary carbohydrate in Korean women.

Keywords

LDL particle size;dietary carbohydrate;LDL phenotype;triglyceride

References

  1. Kulkarni KR, Markovitz JH, Nanda NC, Segrest JP. Increased prevalence of smaller and denser LDL particles in Asian Indians. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:2749-55. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.19.11.2749
  2. Krauss RM. Dietary and genetic probes of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005;25:2265-72. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.0000186365.73973.f0
  3. Parks EJ, Hellerstein MK. Carbohydrate-induced hypertriacylglycerolemia: historical perspective and review of biological mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:412-33. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/71.2.412
  4. Hyson DA, Mueller WM, Kasim-Karakas S. Impact of dietary fat intake on postprandial lipemic response in postmenopausal women. FASEB J 1999;13:A13.
  5. Kasim-Karakas SE, Lane E, Almario R, Mueller W, Walzem R. Effects of dietary fat restriction on particle size of plasma lipoproteins in postmenopausal women. Metabolism 1997;46:431-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0026-0495(97)90061-5
  6. Campos H, Willett WC, Peterson RM, Siles X, Bailey SM, Wilson PW, Posner BM, Ordovas JM, Schaefer EJ. Nutrient intake comparisons between Framingham and rural and Urban Puriscal, Costa Rica. Associations with lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and low density lipoprotein particle size. Arterioscler Thromb 1991;11:1089-99. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.11.4.1089
  7. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III). Seoul: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2005.
  8. Legato MJ, Gelzer A, Goland R, Ebner SA, Rajan S, Villagra V, Kosowski M; Writing Group for The Partnership for Gender- Specific Medicine. Gender-specific care of the patient with diabetes: review and recommendations. Gend Med 2006;3:131-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1550-8579(06)80202-0
  9. Sarafidis PA, McFarlane SI, Bakris GL. Gender disparity in outcomes of care and management for diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Curr Diab Rep 2006;6:219-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-006-0038-3
  10. Hunt KJ, Resendez RG, Williams K, Haffner SM, Stern MP; San Antonio Heart Study. National Cholesterol Education Program versus World Health Organization metabolic syndrome in relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the San Antonio Heart Study. Circulation 2004;110:1251-7. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000140762.04598.F9
  11. Bentley-Lewis R, Koruda K, Seely EW. The metabolic syndrome in women. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2007;3:696-704. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncpendmet0616
  12. Hwang IC, Kim KK, Suh DH, Lee KR. The cut off value of body fat percentage for diagnosing obesity among selected number of elementary school students in Seoul. Korean J Obes 2008;17:169-74.
  13. Moon HK, Kong JE. Assessment of nutrient intake for middle aged with and without metabolic syndrome using 2005 and 2007 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey. Korean J Nutr 2010;43:69-78. https://doi.org/10.4163/kjn.2010.43.1.69
  14. Krauss RM. Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype and diet-gene interactions. J Nutr 2001;131:340S-343S. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/131.2.340S
  15. Austin MA, King MC, Vranizan KM, Krauss RM. Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. A proposed genetic marker for coronary heart disease risk. Circulation 1990;82:495-506. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.82.2.495
  16. Austin MA, Rodriguez BL, McKnight B, McNeely MJ, Edwards KL, Curb JD, Sharp DS. Low-density lipoprotein particle size, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as risk factors for coronary heart disease in older Japanese-American men. Am J Cardiol 2000;86:412-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9149(00)00956-5
  17. Griffin BA, Freeman DJ, Tait GW, Thomson J, Caslake MJ, Packard CJ, Shepherd J. Role of plasma triglyceride in the regulation of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions: relative contribution of small, dense LDL to coronary heart disease risk. Atherosclerosis 1994;106:241-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(94)90129-5
  18. Stan S, Levy E, Delvin EE, Hanley JA, Lamarche B, O'Loughlin J, Paradis G, Lambert M. Distribution of LDL particle size in a population-based sample of children and adolescents and relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors. Clin Chem 2005;51:1192-200. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2004.046771
  19. Shin MJ, Krauss RM. Apolipoprotein CIII bound to apoBcontaining lipoproteins is associated with small, dense LDL independent of plasma triglyceride levels in healthy men. Atherosclerosis 2010;211:337-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.02.025
  20. Suh I, Oh KW, Lee KH, Psaty BM, Nam CM, Kim SI, Kang HG, Cho SY, Shim WH. Moderate dietary fat consumption as a risk factor for ischemic heart disease in a population with a low fat intake: a case-control study in Korean men. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:722-7. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/73.4.722
  21. Nam CM, Oh KW, Lee KH, Jee SH, Cho SY, Shim WH, Suh I. Vitamin C intake and risk of ischemic heart disease in a population with a high prevalence of smoking. J Am Coll Nutr 2003;22:372-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2003.10719320
  22. Lee YC, Lee HJ, Oh KW. Fatty Acid Composition of Korean Foods. Seoul: Shin Kwang Publisher; 1995.
  23. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Korean Food Composition Table. Seoul: Ministry of Health and Welfare; 1996.
  24. Dreon DM, Fernstrom HA, Williams PT, Krauss RM. Reduced LDL particle size in children consuming a very-low-fat diet is related to parental LDL-subclass patterns. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1611-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/71.6.1611
  25. Krauss RM, Dreon DM. Low-density-lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:478S-487S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/62.2.478S
  26. Lamarche B, Tchernof A, Mauriege P, Cantin B, Dagenais GR, Lupien PJ, Despres JP. Fasting insulin and apolipoprotein B levels and low-density lipoprotein particle size as risk factors for ischemic heart disease. JAMA 1998;279:1955-61. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.279.24.1955
  27. Krauss RM, Burke DJ. Identification of multiple subclasses of plasma low density lipoproteins in normal humans. J Lipid Res 1982;23:97-104.
  28. Berneis KK, Krauss RM. Metabolic origins and clinical significance of LDL heterogeneity. J Lipid Res 2002;43:1363-79. https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.R200004-JLR200
  29. Anber V, Millar JS, McConnell M, Shepherd J, Packard CJ. Interaction of very-low-density, intermediate-density, and low-density lipoproteins with human arterial wall proteoglycans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:2507-14. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.17.11.2507
  30. Statistics Korea. Summary Report of the Cause of Death Statistics. Daejeon: Statistics Korea; 2010.
  31. Sung KC, Kim SH, Reaven GM. Relationship among alcohol, body weight, and cardiovascular risk factors in 27,030 Korean men. Diabetes Care 2007;30:2690-4. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc07-0315
  32. Hyun YJ, Kim OY, Jang Y, Ha JW, Chae JS, Kim JY, Yeo HY, Paik JK, Lee JH. Evaluation of metabolic syndrome risk in Korean premenopausal women: not waist circumference but visceral fat. Circ J 2008;72:1308-15. https://doi.org/10.1253/circj.72.1308
  33. Cho HK, Shin G, Ryu SK, Jang Y, Day SP, Stewart G, Packard CJ, Shepherd J, Caslake MJ. Regulation of small dense LDL concentration in Korean and Scottish men and women. Atherosclerosis 2002;164:187-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9150(02)00058-8
  34. Chun S, Min WK, Park H, Song J, Kim JQ, Min YI, Kim SR, Lee SH. The risk groups for coronary heart disease in Koreans. Assessment by distribution of serum lipid concentrations. Clin Chem Lab Med 1999;37:969-74.

Cited by

  1. Low-Density-Lipoprotein Particle Size Predicts a Poor Outcome in Patients with Atherothrombotic Stroke vol.11, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.3988/jcn.2015.11.1.80

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Korea University