Risk Factors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma - Current Status and Perspectives

  • Gao, Jing (State Key Laboratory of Oncogene and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine) ;
  • Xie, Li (State Key Laboratory of Oncogene and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine) ;
  • Yang, Wan-Shui (State Key Laboratory of Oncogene and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine) ;
  • Zhang, Wei (State Key Laboratory of Oncogene and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine) ;
  • Gao, Shan (Department of infection Management, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University) ;
  • Wang, Jing (State Key Laboratory of Oncogene and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine) ;
  • Xiang, Yong-Bing (State Key Laboratory of Oncogene and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine)
  • Published : 2012.03.31


Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common disorder worldwide which ranks 5th and 7th most common cancer among men and women. In recent years, different incidence trends have been observed in various regions, but the reasons are not completely understood. However, due to the great public efforts in HCC prevention and alternation of lifestyle, the roles of some well documented risk factors played in hepatocarcinogenesis might have changed. This paper summarizes both the environmental and host related risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma including well established risk factors such as hepatitis virus infection, aflatoxin and alcohol, as well as possible risk factors such as coffee drinking and other dietary agents.


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