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Toxicity Evaluation of 'Bt-Plus' on Parasitoid and Predatory Natural Enemies

기생성 및 포식성 천적에 대한 작물보호제 '비티플러스'의 독성 평가

  • Received : 2012.01.06
  • Accepted : 2012.02.06
  • Published : 2012.03.01

Abstract

Effect of a new crop protectant 'Bt-Plus' on natural enemies was analyzed in this study. Tested natural enemies included two parasitic species of $Aphidius$ $colemani$ and $Eretmocerus$ $eremicus$, and four predatory species of $Harmonia$ $axyridis$, $Orius$ $laevigatus$, $Amblyseius$ $swirskii$, and $Phytoseiulus$ $persimilis$. 'Bt-Plus' was formulated by combination of three entomopathogenic bacteria ($Xenorhabdus$ $nematophila$ (Xn), $Photorhabdus$ $temperata$ subsp. $temperata$ (Ptt), $Bacillus$ $thuringiensis$ (Bt)) and bacterial metabolite (BM). All three types of 'Bt-Plus' showed significantly higher toxicities against fourth instar $Plutella$ $xylostella$ larvae than Bt single treatment. Two types of bacterial mixtures ('Xn+Bt' and 'Ptt+Bt') showed little toxicity to all natural enemies in both contact and oral feeding assays. However, 'BM+Bt' showed significant toxicities especially to two predatory mites of $A.$ $swirskii$ and $P.$ $persimilis$. The acaricidal effects of different bacterial metabolites were evaluated against two spotted spider mite, $Tetranychus$ $urticae$. All six BM chemicals showed significant acaricidal effects. The BM mixture used to prepare 'Bt-Plus' showed a high acaricidal activity with a median lethal concentration at 218.7 ppm (95% confidence interval: 163.2 - 262.3). These toxic effects of bacterial metabolites were also proved by cytotoxicity test against Sf9 cells. Especially, benzylideneacetone, which was used as a main ingredient of 'BM+Bt', showed high cytotoxicity at its low micromolar concentration.

Acknowledgement

Grant : 화학농약 대체기술

Supported by : 농촌진흥청, 교육과학기술부

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