Breakfast patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

  • Min, Chan-Yang ;
  • Noh, Hwa-Young ;
  • Kang, Yun-Sook ;
  • Sim, Hea-Jin ;
  • Baik, Hyun-Wook ;
  • Song, Won-O. ;
  • Yoon, Ji-Hyun ;
  • Park, Young-Hee ;
  • Joung, Hyo-Jee
  • Received : 2011.01.28
  • Accepted : 2011.09.14
  • Published : 2012.02.29


The Korean diet, including breakfast, is becoming more Western, which could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to assess whether breakfast patterns are associated with risk for metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. The study subjects (n=371; 103 men, 268 women) were employees of Jaesang Hospital in Korea and their acquaintances, and all subjects were between 30 and 50 years old. The data collected from each subject included anthropometric measurements, three-day food intake, blood pressure (BP) and blood analyses. The three breakfast patterns identified by factor analysis were "Rice, Kimchi and Vegetables", "Potatoes, Fruits and Nuts" and "Eggs, Breads and Processed meat". The "Rice, Kimchi and Vegetables" pattern scores were positively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurements in men (P<0.05) and with serum triglyceride (TG) levels in women (P<0.05). The "Eggs, Breads and Processed meat" pattern scores correlated positively with weight, body mass index (P<0.05) and serum TGs (P<0.01) in men. The "Potatoes, Fruits and Nuts" pattern was associated with lower risk of elevated BP (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.28-0.88) and fasting glucose levels (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26-1.00). In contrast, the "Eggs, Breads and Processed meat" pattern was associated with increased risk of elevated TGs (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.06-3.98). Our results indicate that reducing the consumption of eggs, western grains and processed meat while increasing fruit, nut and vegetable intake for breakfast could have beneficial effects on decreasing metabolic syndrome risk in Korean adults.


Breakfast pattern;metabolic syndrome risk;Korean adults


  1. Nettleton JA, Steffen LM, Ni H, Liu K, Jacobs DR Jr. Dietary patterns and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Diabetes Care 2008;31: 1777-82.
  2. Browning JD, Davis J, Saboorian MH, Burgess SC. A lowcarbohydrate diet rapidly and dramatically reduces intrahepatic triglyceride content. Hepatology 2006;44:487-8.
  3. Parks EJ. Effect of dietary carbohydrate on triglyceride metabolism in humans. J Nutr 2001;131:2772S-2774S.
  4. West CE, Sullivan DR, Katan MB, Halferkamps IL, van der Torre HW. Boys from populations with high-carbohydrate intake have higher fasting triglyceride levels than boys from populations with high-fat intake. Am J Epidemiol 1990;131:271-82.
  5. Esmaillzadeh A, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. Whole-grain consumption and the metabolic syndrome: a favorable association in Tehranian adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59:353-62.
  6. di Giuseppe R, Di Castelnuovo A, Melegari C, De Lucia F, Santimone I, Sciarretta A, Barisciano P, Persichillo M, De Curtis A, Zito F, Krogh V, Donati MB, de Gaetano G, Iacoviello L; on behalf of the Moli-sani Project Investigators. Typical breakfast food consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a large sample of Italian adults. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. Forthcoming 2010. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2010.07.006.
  7. Choi J, Lee JM. The perception and attitude of food experts in New York city toward Korean food: assessed by in-depth interviews of "Foodies". Korean J Food Cult 2010;25:126-33.
  8. Song Y, Joung H. A traditional Korean dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome abnormalities. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. Forthcoming 2011. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2010.09.002.
  9. Kim YO. Dietary patterns associated with hypertension among Korean males. Nutr Res Pract 2009;3:162-6.
  10. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008 National Health Statistics. 2008.
  11. Kang H, Jung HJ, Paik HY. Analysis of foods and nutrients intake obtained at the final probing step in 24-hour recall method. Korean J Nutr 2009;42:158-70.
  12. Noh HY. The association of long-term dietary patterns and changes in body composition in Korean early adolescent girls [master's thesis]. Seoul: Seoul National University; 2008.
  13. Min C, Noh H, Kang YS, Sim HJ, Baik HW, Song WO, Yoon J, Park YH, Joung H. Skipping breakfast is associated with diet quality and metabolic syndrome risk factors of adults. Nutr Res Pract 2011;5:455-63.
  14. International Diabetes Federation (IDF) [Internet]. The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome; 2006. Available from: final.pdf.
  15. Lee S, Park HS, Kim SM, Kwon HS, Kim DY, Kim DJ, Cho GJ, Han JH, Kim SR, Park CY, Oh SJ, Lee CB, Kim KS, Oh SW, Kim YS, Choi WH, Yoo HJ. Cut-off points of waist circumference for defining abdominal obesity in the Korean population. Korean J Obes 2006;15:1-9.
  16. Reedy J, Krebs-Smith SM. A comparison of food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: USDA's MyPyramid, NHLBI's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard's Healthy Eating Pyramid. J Am Diet Assoc 2008;108:522-8.
  17. Lee JE, Kim JH, Son SJ, Ahn Y, Lee J, Park C, Lee L, Erickson KL, Jung IK. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and health-risk factors in Korean men. Nutrition 2011;27:26-33.
  18. Turley ML, Skeaff CM, Mann JI, Cox B. The effect of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:728-32.
  19. Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, Vollmer WM, Svetkey LP, Sacks FM, Bray GA, Vogt TM, Cutler JA, Windhauser MM, Lin PH, Karanja N. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1117-24.
  20. Kant AK, Andon MB, Angelopoulos TJ, Rippe JM. Association of breakfast energy density with diet quality and body mass index in American adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999-2004. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88:1396-404.
  21. Kim SH. Children's growth and school performance in relation to breakfast. J Korean Diet Assoc 1999;5:215-24.
  22. Lee SH, Shim JS, Kim JY, Moon HA. The effect of breakfast regularity on eating habits, nutritional and health status in adults. Korean J Nutr 1996;29:533-46.
  23. Pereira MA, Erickson E, McKee P, Schrankler K, Raatz SK, Lytle LA, Pellegrini AD. Breakfast frequency and quality may affect glycemia and appetite in adults and children. J Nutr 2011;141:163-8.
  24. Rogers PJ. How important is breakfast? Br J Nutr 1997;78:197-8.
  25. Ruxton CH, Kirk TR. Breakfast: a review of associations with measures of dietary intake, physiology and biochemistry. Br J Nutr 1997;78:199-213.
  26. Williams P. Breakfast and the diets of Australian adults: an analysis of data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2005;56:65-79.
  27. Juang SJ, Peng LN, Lin MH, Lai HY, Hwang SJ, Chen LK, Chiou ST. Metabolic characteristics of breakfast-vegetarian (BV) elderly people in rural Taiwan. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2010;50: 20-3.
  28. Shim JE, Paik HY, Moon HK. Breakfast consumption pattern, diet quality and health outcomes in adults from 2001 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Korean J Nutr 2007;40:451-62.
  29. Siega-Riz AM, Popkin BM, Carson T. Differences in food patterns at breakfast by sociodemographic characteristics among a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Prev Med 2000;30:415-24.
  30. Cho S, Dietrich M, Brown CJ, Clark CA, Block G. The effect of breakfast type on total daily energy intake and body mass index: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Am Coll Nutr 2003;22: 296-302.
  31. Hu FB. Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 2002;13:3-9.

Cited by

  1. Dietary strategies to reduce metabolic syndrome vol.14, pp.3, 2013,
  2. The role of potatoes and potato components in cardiometabolic health: A review vol.45, pp.7, 2013,
  3. Dietary patterns for meals of Brazilian adults vol.114, pp.05, 2015,
  4. Effect of various diets on biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome vol.68, pp.5, 2017,
  5. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women vol.94, pp.34, 2015,
  6. Metabolic risk and nutritional state according to breakfast energy level of Korean adults: Using the 2007~2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey vol.48, pp.1, 2015,
  7. Breakfast patterns and their association with body mass index in Brazilian adults vol.34, pp.6, 2018,


Supported by : Rural Development Administration