- Volume 15 Issue 6
DOI QR Code
Effect of a through-building gap on wind-induced loading and dynamic responses of a tall building
- To, Alex P. (Ove Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd.) ;
- Lam, K.M. (Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong) ;
- Wong, S.Y. (Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong) ;
- Xie, Z.N. (State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Architecture Science, South China University of Technology)
- Received : 2011.05.03
- Accepted : 2012.03.05
- Published : 2012.11.25
Many tall buildings possess through-building gaps at middle levels of the building elevation. Some of these floors are used as sky gardens, or refuge floors, through which wind can flow with limited blockage. It has been reported in the literature that through-building gaps can be effective in reducing across-wind excitation of tall buildings. This paper systematically examines the effectiveness of two configurations of a through-building gap, at the mid-height of a tall building, in reducing the wind-induced dynamic responses of the building. The two configurations differ in the pattern of through-building opening on the gap floor, one with opening through the central portion of the floor and the other with opening on the perimeter of the floor around a central core. Wind forces and moments on the building models were measured with a high-frequency force balance from which dynamic building responses were computed. The results show that both configurations of a through-building gap are effective in reducing the across-wind excitation with the one with opening around the perimeter of the floor being significantly more effective. Wind pressures were measured on the building faces with electronic pressure scanners to help understand the generation of wind excitation loading. The data suggest that the through-building gap reduces the fluctuating across-wind forces through a disturbance of the coherence and phase-alignment of vortex excitation.
- Building Codes of Hong Kong (MOE) (1996), Code of practice of the provision of means of escape in case of fire. Build, Auth. Hong Kong, 29-33.
- Cheng, C.C.K., Lam, K.M. and Demirbilek, N. (2008), "Effects of building wall arrangements on wind-induced ventilation through the refuge floor of a tall building", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 96(5), 656-664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2008.01.009
- Dutton, R. and Isyumov, N. (1990), "Reduction of tall building motion by aerodynamic treatments", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 36(2), 739-747. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6105(90)90071-J
- Irwin, P. (2009), "Wind engineering challenges of the new generation of super-tall buildings", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 97(7-8), 328-334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2009.05.001
- Isyumov, N., Fediw, A.A., Colaco, J. and Banavalkar, P.V. (1992), "Performance of a tall building under wind action", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 42(1-3), 1053-1064. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6105(92)90112-N
- Kikitsu, H. and Okada, H. (1999), Open passage design of tall buildings for reducing aerodynamics response, in: Wind Engineering into the 21st Century, (Eds. A, Larsen, G.L. Larose, F.M. and Livesey, A.A.), Balkema Publ., 667-672.
- Kim, Y.C. and Kanda, J. (2010), "Characteristics of aerodynamic forces and pressures on square plan buildings with height variations", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 98(8-9), 449-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2010.02.004
- Kim, Y.C. and Kanda, J. (2010), "Effects of taper and set-back on wind force and wind-induced response of tall buildings", Wind Struct., 13(6), 499-517. https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2010.13.6.499
- Kwok, K.C.S. (1988), "Effect of building shape on wind-induced response of tall buildings", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 28(1-3), 381-390. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6105(88)90134-1
- Kwok, K.C.S. and Bailey, P.A. (1987), "Aerodynamic devices for tall buildings and structures", J. Eng. Mech. - ASCE, 113(3), 349-365. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(1987)113:3(349)
- Kwok, K.C.S. and Isyumov, N. (1998), "Aerodynamic measures to reduce the wind-induced response of buildings and structures", Proceedings of the Structural Engineering World Wide, San Francisco, USA, 1998, CD T179-6-CD.
- Kwok, K.C.S., Wilhelm, P.A. and Wilkie, B.G. (1988), "Effect of edge configuration on wind-induced response of tall buildings", Eng. Struct., 10(2), 135-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-0296(88)90039-9
- Lam, K.M., Leung, M.Y.H. and Zhao, J.G. (2008), "Interference effects on wind loading of a row of closely spaced tall buildings", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 96(5), 562-583. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2008.01.010
- Lam, K.M. and Li, A. (2009), "Mode shape correction for wind-induced dynamic responses of tall buildings using time-domain computation and wind tunnel tests", J. Sound Vib., 322, 740-755. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2008.11.049
- Lam, K.M. and To, A.P. (2009), "Statistical analysis of extreme wind speeds in Hong Kong and Macau", Trans. Hong Kong Inst. Eng., 16(1), 1-8.
- Lam, K.M., Zhao, J.G. and Leung, M.Y.H. (2011), "Wind-induced loading and dynamic responses of a row of tall buildings under strong interference", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 99(5), 573-583. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2011.02.006
- Mayne, J.R. and Cook, N.J. (1979), "Acquisition, analysis and application of wind loading data", Proceedings of the 5th Int. Conf. Wind Engineering, Fort Collins, Pergamon Press.
- Miyashita, K., Katagiri, J. and Nakamura, O. (1993), "Wind-induced response of high-rise buildings - effects of corner cuts or openings in square buildings", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 50, 319-328. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6105(93)90087-5
- Tschanz, A. (1982), Measurement of total dynamic loads using elastic models with high natural frequencies, in: Workshop on Wind Tunnel Modeling Criteria and Effects, N.B.S., Gaithersburg, Mass., 1982.
- Tse, K.T., Hitchcock, P.A., Kwok, K.C.S., Thepmongkorn, S. and Chan, C.M. (2009), "Economic perspectives of aerodynamic treatments of square tall buildings", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 97(9-10), 455-467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2009.07.005
- Zdrakovich, M.M. (1981), "Review and classification of various aerodynamic and hydrodynamic means for suppressing vortex shedding", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 7(2), 145-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6105(81)90036-2
- Aerodynamic measurements of across-wind loads and responses of tapered super high-rise buildings vol.21, pp.3, 2015, https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2015.21.3.331
- POD analysis of crosswind forces on a tall building with square and H-shaped cross sections vol.21, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2015.21.1.063
- Simultaneous measurement of wind velocity field and wind forces on a square tall building pp.2048-4011, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1177/1369433218770822
- LES and Wind Tunnel Test of Flow around Two Tall Buildings in Staggered Arrangement vol.6, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3390/computation6020028