Effect of Protein Fractionation and Buffer Solubility of Forage Sources on In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics, Degradability and Gas Production

조사료 자원의 단백질 분획 및 Buffer 추출이 In Vitro 발효 성상, 분해율 및 Gas 생성량에 미치는 효과

  • Jin, Guang Lin (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Shinekhuu, Judder (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Qin, Wei-Ze (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Kim, Jong-Kyu (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Ju, Jong-Kwan (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Suh, Seong-Won (Department of Animal Biosystem Science, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Song, Man-Kang (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University)
  • 김광림 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 축산학과) ;
  • ;
  • ;
  • 김종규 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 축산학과) ;
  • 주종관 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 축산학과) ;
  • 서성원 (충남대학교 동물바이오시스템과학과) ;
  • 송만강 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 축산학과)
  • Received : 2012.02.01
  • Accepted : 2012.03.12
  • Published : 2012.03.31


Buffer solubility and protein fractionation were evaluated from the hays (timothy, alfalfa and klein) and straws (tall fescue and rice), and $In$ $vitro$ trial was conducted to examine the effect of buffer extraction on fermentation characteristics, degradability and gas ($CO_2$ and $CH_4$) production. Buffer soluble protein (SP) content and A fraction in total protein were highest in alfalfa hay as 61% and 41.77%, respectively while lowest in rice straw (42.8% and 19.78%, respectively). No difference was observed in B1 fraction among forages but B2 fraction was slightly increased in klein hay (12.34%) and tall fescue straw (10.05%) compared with other forages (6.34~8.85%). B3 fraction of tall fescue was highest as 38.49% without difference among other forages while C fraction was highest in rice straw. pH in incubation solution was higher in all forages after extraction than before extraction at 3h (P<0.01) and 6h (P<0.05), and pH from hays of timothy and alfalfa was higher than the other forages at 6h (P<0.05) and 12h (P<0.001). Regardless of extraction, ammonia-N concentration from alfalfa hay was increased at all incubation times and extraction effect was appeared only at 3h incubation time (P<0.01). Total VFA concentration from alfalfa hay was highest up to 24h incubation while those from tall fescue straw and rice straw were lowest. Buffer extraction decreased (P<0.01~P<0.001) the total VFA concentration. Acetic acid proportion was increased (P<0.001) before extraction of forages but no difference was found between forages. Propionic acid($C_3$) proportion was also increased(P<0.001) before extraction in all forages than in straws at 3h, 24h and 48h incubations, and $C_3$ from hays were mostly higher (P<0.05) than from straws. Butyric acid proportion, however, was not affected by extraction at most incubation times. Parameter 'a' regarding to the dry matter (DM) degradation was increase (P<0.001) in all forages before extraction, and was decreased (P<0.05) in tall fescue straw and rice straw compared with hays. Parameter 'b' was also increased (P<0.001) before extraction but no difference was found between forages. Effective degradability of DM (EDDM) was higher (P<0.001) before extraction in most forages except for rice straw. Buffer extraction decreased (P<0.05) all parameters (a, b, and c) regrading to the crude protein (CP) degradation but no difference was found between forages. Effective degradation of CP (EDCP) was lower (P<0.05) in straws than in hays. Parameters 'a' and 'b' regarding to the NDF degradation (P<0.01) and effective degradability of NDF (EDNDF, P<0.001) were also higher in forages before extraction than after extraction but no difference was found between forages. Buffer extraction reduced (P<0.05~P<0.001) $CO_2$ production from all the forages uo to 24h incubation and its production was greater (P<0.05~P<0.01) from hays than straws. Methane ($CH_4$) production was also greater (P<0.01~P<0.001) in all forages at all incubation times, and its production was greater (P<0.05) from hays than from straws at most incubation times. Based on the results of the current study, it can be concluded that buffer solubility and CP fractionation might be closely related with $In$ $vitro$ VFA concentration, degradability and gas ($CO_2$ and $CH_4$) production. Thus, measurement of buffer solubility and protein fractionation of forages might be useful to improve TMR availability in the ruminants.


  1. AOAC. 1991. Official Methods of Analysis (15th ed.). Association of Official Analycal Chemists, Washington, D.C.
  2. Bauchop, T. 1979. Rumen anaerobic fungi of cattle and sheep. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38: 148-159.
  3. Cho, Y.M., E.G. Kwan, S.S. Chang, T.I. Kim, B.K. Park, S.W. Kang and B.H. Baek. 2008. Effects of total mixed ration on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. and Tech. 50:363-372.
  4. Citron, A., A. Breton and G. Fonty. 1987. Rumen anaerobic fungi. Bull. Inst. Pasteur. 85:329-346.
  5. Coleman, G.S. 1980. Rumen ciliate protozoa. Adv. Paracitol. 18:121-134.
  6. Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics. 11:1-42.
  7. Fawcett, J. K. and Scott, J. E. 1960. A rapid and precise method for the determination of urea. J. Clin. Pathol. 13:156-163.
  8. Fox, D.G., C.J. Sniffen, J.D. O'Connor, J.B. Russell and P.J. Van Soest. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: III. Cattle requirements and diet adequacy. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3578-3596.
  9. Han, I.K. and Garrett, W.N. 1986. Improving the dry matter digestibility and voluntary intake of low quality by various treatment : A review. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 28:199-213.
  10. Han, I.K., I.K. Baik, Y.J. Choi, B.K. Kim and S.W. Seo. 2011. Feed Resources Handbook. SNU Publishing Co.
  11. Hungate, R.E. 1966. The Rumen and It's Microbes. Academic Press. New York.
  12. Ji, B.J., K.L. Jin, S. Judder, Wei-ze Qin, Y.K. Oh, Y.S. Sohn, S. Seo and M.K. Song. 2010. Estimation of availability and TDN of various silages by cattle. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 30:169-178.
  13. Jugdder, S., K.L. Jin, B.J. Ji, X. Li., Y.K. Oh, S.K. Hong, M.K. Song. 2009b. Protein fractionion of whole crop silages, and effect of borate-phosphate buffer extraction on in vitro fermentation characteristics, gas production and degradation. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. and Tech. 51: 69-378.
  14. Kim, W.H., S. Seo, S.H. Yoon, K.Y. Kim. Y.M. Cho, T.I. Park, J.M. Koh and G.J. Park. 2003. Selection of promising barley cultivar for silage. 2. Nutrient value and total digestible nutrient yield. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 23:283-288.
  15. Lee, S.C. 2000. Effects of chemical treatments and ensiling on the chemical composition and degradation rate in the rumen. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 20:177-184.
  16. Lee, I.D. and H.S. Lee. 2006. A comparative study on the dry matter yield and nutritive value from rye and hairy vetch seeding types in Daejon area. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 26:249-256.
  17. Licitra, G., Hernandez, T.M. and Van soest, P.J. 1996. standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 57:347-358.
  18. McDougall, E.I. 1948. Studies on ruminant saliva. I. The composition and output of sheep's saliva. Biochem. J. 43:99-109.
  19. Nocek, J. and J.B. ussell. 1988. Protein and carbohydrate as an integrated system. Relationship of ruminal availability to microbial contribution and milk production. J. Daity Sci. 71:2071-2079.
  20. NRC. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.
  21. Park, H.S., K.J. Whang, N.G. Park, G.J. Choi, J.K. Lee, D.W. Cheon and M.S. Ko. 2008. Comparison of forage production and feed value of winter forage crops in Jeju. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 28:215-220.
  22. Qin, Wei-ze, K.L. Jin, J.K. Kim, Y.K. Oh, S.C. Lee, M.K. Song. 2010. Estimation of availability of whole crop barley and rye silage TMR in the cattle. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 30: 343-354.
  23. Orskov, E.R. and McDonald, I. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 92: 99-506.
  24. Russell, R.J., J.D. O'Connor, D.G. Fox, P.J. Van Soest and C.J. Sniffen. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: I. Ruminal fermentation. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3551- 3561.
  25. SAS. 2002. SAS Procedures Guide release 9.0 SAS institute Inc., Cary, NC. U.S.
  26. Seo, I.J., M.H. Kim, D.S. Kim, S.R. Lee and W.J. Maeng. 2005. Effect of fiber sources on ruminal pH, buffering capacity and digestibility in sheep. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 25:177-184.
  27. Sniffen, C.J., J.D. O'Connor, P.J. Van Soest, D.G. Fox and J.B. Russell. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3562-3577.
  28. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A. 1991. Methods for fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.
  29. Waldo, D.R. and L.W. Smith. 1972. Model of cellulose disappearance from the rumen. J. Dairy Sci. 55:472-480.
  30. Yoon, S.K. and A. Kazuo, A. 2000. Effects of maturing stages on chemical composition for feed and in vitro dry matter digestibility of triticale. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 20:227-232.

Cited by

  1. Effect of Defaunation on In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics and Methane Emission When Incubated with Forages vol.33, pp.3, 2013,
  2. Effects of Defaunation on Fermentation Characteristics, Degradation of Ryegrass Hay and Methane Production by Rumen Microbes In Vitro When Incubated with Plant Oils vol.34, pp.3, 2014,
  3. Nutrient composition and in vitro fermentability of corn grain and stover harvested at different periods in Goesan, a mountainous area vol.61, pp.1, 2019,