A Comparative Study on the Growth Characteristics and Nutritional Components of Corn Hybrids for Silage at Paddy Field Cultivation

논토양에 사일리지용 옥수수 재배시 품종별 생육특성 및 영양성분 비교 연구

  • Kim, Wan-Su (Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Hwang, Joo-Hwan (Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Lee, Jae-Hun (Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kim, Eun-Joong (Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Jeon, Byong-Tae (Korea Nokyoung Research Center, Konkuk University) ;
  • Moon, Sang-Ho (Korea Nokyoung Research Center, Konkuk University) ;
  • Lee, Sang-Moo (Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University)
  • Received : 2012.01.13
  • Accepted : 2012.02.29
  • Published : 2012.03.31


This study was carried out to know adaptability and growth characteristics, yield, chemical compositions and nutrition yield of corn hybrids for silage at paddy field. The field experiments were conducted at Sangju province for one year (2009). The experimental design was arranged in a randomized block design with three replication. The treatments consisted of eleven corn hybrids. The planting date was on 1 May and harvested at 24 August. Stem diameter, stem hardness and number of ear were higher in P32P75 than other varieties. Ear height, dead leaf and green degree were highest in $NC^+$7117, but number of root system and Brix ($B^{\circ}$) were higher in P3394 than other varieties. Crude protein and crude fat (EE) were highest in P32K61 and P31P41, respectively (P<0.01). NDF and ADF were highest in KPO and KIO, respectively, but no significant differences were found among the varieties. Total mineral contents were the highest in Kwangpyongok (9,775 mg/kg), and P3394 (6,651 mg/kg) was the lowest as compared to other varieties (P<0.01). Crude protein yield, crude fat yield and mineral yield were highest in P3156, P31P41 and KPO, respectively (P<0.01). Total composition amino acid and total fatty acid were the highest in P32K61 and KIO, respectively (P<0.01). Yields of crude protein, fatty acid, composition amino acid and TDN were the highest in P3156 (P<0.01). But yields of crude protein and mineral were the highest in P31P41 and KPO, respectively (P<0.01). Total digestible nutrient (TDN) was higher in order of P3156 > $NC^+$7117 > P31N27 > KPO > P32K61 > P32T83 > P32P75 > P31P41 > P3394 > P32W86 > KIO. Based on the above results, corn hybrid varieties could be recommended in P3156, NC+7117 and P31N27 for growth characteristics, quantitative production and nutrition yield.


  1. Ahn, D.H. and B.S. Ha. 1987. Comparative studies on the lipid composition in varieties of dent corn. J. Kor. Soc. Food Nutr. 16(4):350-363.
  2. Aldrich, S.R., W.O. Scott and R.G. Hoeft. 1986. Modern corn production. 3rd ed. A. and L. Publication Inc. station. Illinois.
  3. AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of analysis. 16th ed. Association of analytical chemist, Washington, DC., USA.
  4. Bressani, R. and E.T. Mertz. 1958. Studies on corn proteins. IV. Protein and amino acid content of different corn varieties. Cereal Chem. 35:227- 235.
  5. Folch, J., M. Lee and G.H.S. Stanly. 1957. Simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226:497-509.
  6. Goering, H.K. and Van Soest, P.J. 1970. Forage fiber analysis. Ag. Handbook. No. 379. ARS. USDA. washington DC.
  7. Holland, C., Kezar, W., Kautz, W.P., Lazowski, E.J., Mahanna, W.C. and Reinhart, R. 1990. The pioneer forage manual; A nutritional guide. pioneer Hi-Bred., Des Moines, IA.
  8. Hunt, C.W., W. Kezar and R. Vinande. 1992. Yield chemical composition, and ruminal ferment ability of corn whole plant, ear and stover as affected by hybrid. J. Prod. Agric. 5:286-290.
  9. Hwang, K.J., H.S. Park, N.G. Park, H.Y. Jeong, M.S. Ko, M.C. Kim, S.T. Song and D.W. Kim. 2009. Effect of cattle manure application on mineral contents of grazing pasture. J. Kor. Grassl. Forage Sci. 29(1):37-42.
  10. Jeon, B.T., S.H. Moon and S.M. Lee. 1989. Studies on the productivity and adaptability of foreign or domestic corn silage in Chungju areas. J. Kor. Jungwoon Res. Kon Kuk. Uni. 8:3-12
  11. Ji, B.J., G.L. Jin, J. Shinekuu, W.Z. Qin, Y.K. Oh, Y.S. Sohn, S.S. Seo and M.K. Song. 2010. Estimation of availability and TDN of various silages by cattle. J. Kor. Grassl. Forage Sci. 30(2):169-178.
  12. Ji, H.C., C.S. Kim, B.Y. Hong and H.B. Lee. 2006. Agronomic characteristics of waxy hybrid corn on the paddy soil conditions. J. Kor. Agri. Sci. Chungnam Nat'l Univ., Kor. 33(2):123-127.
  13. Ji, H.C., J.K. Lee, K.Y. Kim, S.H. Yoon, Y.C. Lim, O.D. Kwon and H.B. Lee. 2009a. Evaluation of agronomic characteristics, forage production and quality of corn hybrids for silage at paddy field in southern region of Korea. J. Kor. Grassl. Forage Sci. 29(1):13-18.
  14. Ji, H.C., W.H. Kim, K.Y. Kim, S.H. Lee, S.H. Yoon and Y.C. Lim. 2009b. Effect of different drained conditions on growth, forage production and quality of silage corn at paddy field. J. Kor. Grassl. Forage Sci. 29(4):329-336.
  15. Ju, J.I., Y.G. Seung, C.G. Kim and H.B. Lee. 2010. Planting date and hybrid influence on silage corn yield and quality at paddy field in middle region. J. Kor. Grassl. Forage Sci. 30(1):1-8.
  16. Jung, Y.K. 2002. comparisons of the forage productivity and mineral contents between the newly recaimed and arable pasture soils. II. changes in the soil properties, vigour at early growth, yields, and mineral nutrients of forages as affected by lime application. J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 22(4):279-286.
  17. Kang, B.K., Y.M. Park and Y.K. Kang. 2001. Nutrient uptake and leaching under different fertilizer treatment for corn and potato growth in volcanic ash soil. Kor. J. Crop Sci. 46(3):253-259.
  18. Kang, J.H., H.J. Lee and B.H. Park. 1985. Growth analysis of silage corn in response to seeding time. J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 5(3):212-219.
  19. Kim, C.H., S.C. Park, H.W. Lee and H.K. Kang. 1998a. Comparison of growth characteristics, forage yield and growth analysis in corn hybrids for silage production. J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 18(2): 79-88.
  20. Kim, D.A., K.N. Lee, D.E. Shin, J.D. Kim and K.J. Han. 1996a. Effect of planting date on forage yield and quality of corn hybrids of four maturity groups. J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 16(4):327-337.
  21. Kim, D.A., S.B. Koh, C.H. Kwon, M.C. Kim, K. J. Han, J.D. Kim, K.N. Lee, D.U. Shin and J. K. Kim. 1997. Evaluation of early maturing and superior performance corn hybrids for silage in the central north and Cheju regions. 1997. J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 17(4):323-328.
  22. Kim, D.A. and W.H. Kim. 1993. Effects of winter annual forage crops on growth, yield and quality of silage corn. J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 13(2): 122-131.
  23. Kim, J.D., C.H. Kwon, S.G. Kim, H.S. Park, H. J. Ko and J.K. Kim. 2002. Effect of harvest stage on forage yield and quality of silage corn at late planting. J. Kor. Anim. Sci. & Technol. 44(2): 251-260.
  24. Kim, J.G., E.S. Chung, S. Seo, W.S. Kang, J.S. Yang and Y.M. Cho. 1998b. Effects of plant density on forage yield and quality of corn. J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 18(1):49-54.
  25. Kim, J.G., G.J. Park, G.Y. Kim and M.S. Han. 1996b. Growth and yield performance of selected forage crops cultivated on imperfectly drained paddy field under subsurface drainage by PVC pipes. J. Kor. Grassal Sci. 16(3):219-224.
  26. Kim, M.C. 1991. Effects of nitrogen and potassium application on pasture of Cheju volcanic soil. I. Dry matter yield and mineral concentration (N, P, k, Ca, Ma, Na) of Orchardgrass. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 33(9):683-691.
  27. Kim, W.H., J.S. Shin, Y.C. Lim, S. Seo, K.Y. Kim and J.K. Lee. 2005. study on the promising double cropping system of summer and winter forage crop in paddy field. J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 25(4):233-238.
  28. Lee, J.K., H.S. Park, J.W. Chung, J.G. Kim, Y. C. Lim, Y.G. Kim, S.C. Lee, J.R. Jung and K. I. Sung. 2005. Effect of the planting densities and nitrogen levels on the growth characteristics, dry matter yield and nutritive value of corn for silage in alpine areas. J. Kor. Grasl. Sci. 25(4):239-244.
  29. Lee, J.K., H.S. Park, Y.G. Kim, J.W. Chung, K. J. Na, M.C. Kim, S.C. Lee and W.B. Yook. 2004a. Effect of the seeding and harvesting dates on the growth characteristics, dry matter yield and qyality of corn for silage in alpine areas. J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 24(2):115-122.
  30. Lee, S.M., B.T. Kim, J.H. Hwang, B.T. Jeon and S.H. Moon. 2007. Effect of plowing frequency and sowing dates on the agronomic characteristics, feed value, weed yield and palatability of silage corn. J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 27(3):209-218.
  31. Lee, S.M. and J.H. Lee. 2010. Effects of seeding dates and growth periods on the growth characteristics dry matter yield and feed value of corn for silage in paddy field. J. Kor. Anim. Sci. & Techno. 52(5):441-448.
  32. Lee, S.S., K.Y. Park and S.K. Jung. 1981. Growth duration and grain and silage yields of maize at different planting dates. Kor. J. Crop Sci. 26(4):337-343.
  33. Lee, S.S., S.H. Yun, J.M. Seo, S.K. yang, H.K. Kim, S.H. Ryu, J.Y. Park and S.K. Kim. 2004b. Silage productivity of Korean improved and introduced maize hybrids. J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 24 (4):323-334.
  34. Lim. S.H and D.A. Kim. 1996. Effect of different harvest dates on dry matter yield and forage quality of corn (Zea Mays L.). J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 16(1):75-80.
  35. Nuttall, W.F. 1985. Effect of N. P and S fertilizers on alfalfa grown on three soil types in Northeastern Saskatchewan. II. Nitrogen. P. and S uptake and concentration in herbage. Agron. J. 77:224-228.
  36. Park, K.Y., Y.h. Son, S.K. Jeong, K.J. Choi, S. U. Park and B.H. Choe. 1990. Variation of protein content and amino acid composition of maize germplasms. Kor. J. Crop Sci. 35(5):413-423.
  37. Pendleton, J.W. and D.B. Egli. 1969. Potential yield of corn as affected by planting date. Agron. J. 61:70-71.
  38. Reid, R.L., A.J. Post and G.A. Jung. 1970. Mineral composition of forage. W. Va. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. P 589.
  39. Reith, J.W.S. 1965. Mineral composition of crop. N. A. A. S. Q. Rev. 68:150-156.
  40. SAS. 2002. SAS user's guide; Statistics. SAS Inst. Inc. NC.
  41. Seo, I.J., M.H. Kim, D.S. Kim, S.R. Lee and W. J. Maeng. 2005. Effects of fiber sources on ruminal pH, buffering capacity and digestibility in sheep. J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 25(3):177-184.
  42. Shin, D.E., D.a. Kim, H.L. Choi, K.C. Song, H. H. Lee, W.H. Kim and E.S. Chung. 1999. Studies on the liquid manure application for silage corn. J. Kor. Soc. Soil Sci. 32(1):22-30.
  43. Shin, J.S., J.G. Jeon, S.B. Lee, W.H. Kim, S.H. Yoon, J.K. Lee, J.G. Kim, M.W. Jung, S. Seo and Y.C. Lim. 2008. Effect of drainage culvert spacing on forage crops production in poorly drained paddy field converted to upland crop cultivation. J. Kor. Grassl. Forage Sci. 28(4):301-306.
  44. Smith, A.E. 1972. A method for quantifying carbohydrate fraction in forage plants. Agric. Food Chem. 20:238-239.
  45. Son, B.Y., H.G. Moon, T.W. Jung, S.J. Kim and J.D. Kim. 2006. comparison of agronomic characteristics, yield and feed value of different corn hybrids for silage. J. Kor. Crop Sci. 51(3):233-238.
  46. Son, B.Y., J.T. Kim, S.Y. Song, S.B. Baek, C.K. Kim and J.D. Kim. 2009. Comparison of yield and forage quality of silage corns at different planting dates. J. Kor. Grassl. Forage Sci. 29(3):179-186.
  47. Sung, B.R., G.J. Choi, Y.W. Lim and K.J. Park. 2002. Characteristics and yield of recommended cultivars by imported forage crop regional yield trials in 2002. I. Early maturing, good quality, and high yield of forage corn hybrid, "DK 537". 2002. J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 22(4):247-252.
  48. Sung, K.I., G.S. Kim, J.W. Lee, B.W. Kim and S.R. Kim. 2005. Chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of the corn silage during feedout at Yonchon of Gyeonggi-do. J. Kor. Grassl. Sci. 25(1):43-50.
  49. 原田 勇. 1975. 牧草栽培土壤の ミホラル含量と 乳牛疾病と くにグラスラタニの關係. 畜産の硏究. 29:29-34.

Cited by

  1. Effects of Harvest Stage on Agronomic Characteristics, Yield and Feed Value of Silage Corn in the Newly Reclaimed Hilly Land vol.32, pp.3, 2012,
  2. Study on Nutritive Values of Whole Crop Barley Varieties Grown in a Paddy Field vol.33, pp.1, 2013,
  3. Effects of Seeding Dates on Yield and Feed Value of Italian Ryegrass in Paddy Field Cultivation vol.33, pp.3, 2013,
  4. Effects of Mixed Application of Chemical Fertilizer and Liquid Swine Manure on Agronomic Characteristics, Yield and Feed Value of Sorghum × Sudangrass Hybrid for Silage in Paddy Field Cultivation vol.34, pp.3, 2014,
  5. Effects of Drainage Depths on Agronomic Characteristics, Yield and Feed Value of Silage Corn Hybrid in Paddy Field of Lowland vol.35, pp.2, 2015,
  6. Growth Characteristics, Yield and Nutritive Values of New Teosinte, ‘Geukdong 6’ vol.36, pp.2, 2016,